Many very long speeches. How could anybody have memorized them upon hearing them only one time so they could write it all down later? Obviously they didn't. Perhaps the Holy Spirit later replayed it in the mind of someone who wrote it down. Or, more likely, perhaps the writer of this book composed the words presented here from eyewitness accounts of what was said; in other words, it's historical fiction. Or, even more likely, the book of Job is fictional.

At Job's House

(Job 1:1) There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed [avoided] evil.

Apparently it is possible for someone to be morally perfect. Many Christians today deny this claiming instead we are all as filthy rags, totally depraved. But if Job was perfect, certainly Christians can be, having the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit — the Old Testament saints didn't have this.

(You might object to the word perfect used here, but the word really does mean morally pure — perfect.)

Abraham was originally from Uz.

(Job 1:2) And there were born unto him seven sons and three daughters.

(Job 1:3) His substance also was seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, and five hundred she asses [donkeys], and a very great household; so that this man was the greatest of all the men of the east.

Job was very wealthy.

(Job 1:4) And his sons went and feasted in their houses, every one his day; and sent and called for their three sisters to eat and to drink with them.

(Job 1:5) And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered burnt offerings according to the number of them all: for Job said, It may be that my sons have sinned, and cursed God in their hearts. Thus did Job continually.

If Job were upright why were his children not? Shouldn't we expect holy parents to have holy children with a holy upbringing? or was Job just a worrier who misjudged his children? (this seems a rather serious misjudgment of character.) If Job were truly holy he ought to be able accurately to assess whether someone might curse God in their heart, after all, doing so is a serious sin.

Job regularly prayed for his children's spiritual condition. Notice that his prayer was performed in the context of a ritual, of animal sacrifice. We should today also expect to pray in the context of rites and rituals. Some examples: kneeling, hands in prayer position, lifting hands in the air, closing the eyes, reciting Bible verses, beating the breast, singing with melodies, and many others. We should not judge whether someone's particular rites and rituals seem wrong to us, as long as it pleases God. After all, we could object to Job's practice of animal sacrifice but clearly, in those days, God found the practice to be acceptable and pleasing.

In the spiritual realm 

(Job 1:6) Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.

Sons of God are angels.

(Job 1:7) And the LORD said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.

During the days of Job, Satan was on the earth deceiving the nations. Once Jesus came, Satan was bound so he could no longer deceive the nations.

(Job 1:8) And the LORD said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth [avoids] evil?

You would think God would protect Job from Satan but instead he commends him as an example of a holy man.

(Job 1:9) Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, Doth Job fear God for nought [nothing]?

(Job 1:10) Hast not thou made an hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath on every side? thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his substance is increased in the land.

Satan makes an insidious claim: people love God only because he blesses them.

(Job 1:11) But put forth thine hand now, and touch all that he hath, and he will curse thee to thy face.

Job's unwavering faith in God is to be put to the test. Satan loses this test and inches one step closer to finally being cast into the lake of fire. Probably each of us is tested in some small way as well. How difficult it is to keep true to the faith in times of trial but as Bishop Polycarp said before his martyrdom when commanded to deny and revile Christ: "86 years I have served him and he never did me any injury; how then can I blaspheme my King and my Savior?"

Notice Satan challenges God to harm Job, but God doesn't fall for the trick because God can't harm anyone. Only Satan can steal, kill, and destroy.

(Job 1:12) And the LORD said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD.

Satan and the wicked spirits are able to control events in this world when not forbidden by God. In my view they had a hand in creating the universe and the creatures living in it.

Satan is the one who harmed Job, not God. Satan has control of aspects of the spiritual realm corresponding to this universe.

At Job's House

(Job 1:13) And there was a day when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house:

(Job 1:14) And there came a messenger unto Job, and said, The oxen were plowing, and the asses [donkeys] feeding beside them:

(Job 1:15) And the Sabeans fell upon them, and took them away; yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.

Wicked warlike people may not realize it but they are actually doing Satan's bidding. Unprovoked genocide is a mortal sin.

(Job 1:16) While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The fire of God is fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.

He called it the fire of God but it was not from God. Perhaps it was a volcano or a meteor or a fire caused by lightening or a purely supernatural phenomenon. Clearly, the wicked spirits can do amazing things in the physical world. This reminds me of Jesus' comment that we can cast a mountain into the sea with the sheer power of our faith. Just as the faith of our soul can do such a thing in the physical realm, so also wicked spirits can do such things, but their powers are greatly constrained (as are ours).

(Job 1:17) While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The Chaldeans made out three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have carried them away, yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.

People often say the book of Job was written earlier than any other book. But notice the reference to the Chaldeans. Nebuchadnezzar was a Chaldean.

(Job 1:18) While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, Thy sons and thy daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house:

(Job 1:19) And, behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.

Perhaps this was a tornado or a straight-line wind or a derecho or a purely supernatural phenomenon.

(Job 1:20) Then Job arose, and rent [tore] his mantle [robe], and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped,

Another of the many examples in the Bible of people doing weird and unfamiliar things to express their faith. Fundamentalist evangelical Protestants are typically very small-minded and limiting about the ways Christians can worship God, rejecting for example, Catholic and Orthodox rites, rituals, practices, and customs of prayer, worship, and devotion.

(Job 1:21) And said, Naked came I out of my mother's womb, and naked shall I return thither: the LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; blessed be the name of the LORD.

I started out my Christian journey in a word-faith health-wealth church, not realizing that their doctrines were unbiblical and contrary to apostolic teaching. I remember Benny Hinn saying, "The Lord gives, the Lord takes away: that's not Bible". Actually Benny, it is Bible; in fact, it is a direct quote.

God challenged Satan to test Job knowing he would pass the test. God allowed Satan to take away everything from Job, including his good health. There is a sense in which God did not take away Job's health, but he certainly allowed it. But to blame this occurrence on Job's lack of faith is simply wrongheaded. God wanted to demonstrate to Satan Job's faith in spite of his material troubles. Job demonstrated his faith by not cursing God, he merely complained about his hardship, which is natural for us weak and frail humans.

Job recognized that he started out life in this world with nothing and, at death, would leave this world with nothing. The only things of this world that remain are our memories and skills and relationships, stored up for us in heaven for later retrieval in the new heavens and new earth.

In all circumstances we are to worship God and to praise his goodness and greatness.

(Job 1:22) In all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly.

In the spiritual realm 

(Job 2:1) Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD.

(Job 2:2) And the LORD said unto Satan, From whence comest thou? And Satan answered the LORD, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.

(Job 2:3) And the LORD said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil? and still he holdeth fast his integrity, although thou movedst me against him, to destroy him without cause.

Job was innocent and undeserving of the wrath of Satan upon him. Satan doesn't care about innocence, he just wants to destroy people to promote his own position acting in the place of God.

(Job 2:4) And Satan answered the LORD, and said, Skin for skin, yea, all that a man hath will he give for his life.

(Job 2:5) But put forth thine hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh, and he will curse thee to thy face.

Note that Job's physical body is referred to as flesh and bone. Some make a significant distinction between the phrase "flesh and blood" and "flesh and bone", that there is no blood in a resurrected body. This verse interferes with interpretations making such distinctions.

(Job 2:6) And the LORD said unto Satan, Behold, he is in thine hand; but save his life.

At Job's House

(Job 2:7) So went Satan forth from the presence of the LORD, and smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot unto his crown.

(Job 2:8) And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself withal; and he sat down among the ashes.

(Job 2:9) Then said his wife unto him, Dost thou still retain thine integrity? curse God, and die.

She sounds bitter. She has lost all her children and wealth.

(Job 2:10) But he said unto her, Thou speakest as one of the foolish women speaketh. What? shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil? In all this did not Job sin with his lips.

Even Job's wife wanted to lash out at God for Job's serious troubles. Yet Job refused to have a bad opinion toward God. Job mistakenly believes that this hardship was from God, but it was not; it was from Satan. God allows Satan to operate in the kingdom which is already his. Through grace, God sometimes prevents Satan from doing his dastardly deeds, but God has no obligation to do this. One day, at the second coming of Christ, God will finally conquer sin and death. Job is right to think that God is so wise and powerful that he can orchestrate complex events.

Job did not sin in his claim that God was the source of this hardship. Thus we see that a necessary ingredient to sin is knowledge. People who are ignorant about God's law have more leeway at judgment time. This gives hope that people who have never heard the gospel or who have heard it only in a distorted form, can be saved.

Job's Three Friends

(Job 2:11) Now when Job's three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place; Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite: for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him.

These three men travelled quite a distance, from Edom and Arabia, a distance of more than 500 miles. Travelling 20 miles a day would have taken them almost a month. It is unclear how they could have met together so quickly to decide to visit Job and how they could have gotten there so fast. Perhaps they left after the first disaster before Job's health was affected.

These men were probably also wealthy and felt some sort of bond with Job. Perhaps they were involved financially in some way. They are called friends; maybe that's all that was needed for them to drop what they were doing and spend at least two months for a visit.

They come to comfort Job but end up accusing him of sinning as the cause of his calamity.

(Job 2:12) And when they lifted up their eyes afar off, and knew him not, they lifted up their voice, and wept; and they rent every one his mantle, and sprinkled dust upon their heads toward heaven.

They could see from a distance that Job was sick. Notice their outward displays of grief. Their grief is directed toward God, shared with God.

(Job 2:13) So they sat down with him upon the ground seven days and seven nights, and none spake a word unto him: for they saw that his grief was very great.

Several times when in the hospital my visitors thought their visit was a party; they were utterly insensitive to my condition. They even took it to be a time to catch up with each other about news and gossip. Job's friends are sensitive to Job's condition, at least at first.

Job — Speech #1 

With very many flowery words and images Job says, "I wish I were dead" or "I wish I had never been born" and finally, "I was afraid this could happen".

(Job 3:1) After this opened Job his mouth, and cursed his day.

(Job 3:2) And Job spake, and said,

(Job 3:3) Let the day perish wherein I was born, and the night in which it was said, There is a man child conceived.

A very flowery to say, "I wish I was never born".

(Job 3:4) Let that day be darkness; let not God regard it from above, neither let the light shine upon it.

(Job 3:5) Let darkness and the shadow of death stain it; let a cloud dwell upon it; let the blackness of the day terrify it.

(Job 3:6) As for that night, let darkness seize upon it; let it not be joined unto the days of the year, let it not come into the number of the months.

(Job 3:7) Lo, let that night be solitary, let no joyful voice come therein.

(Job 3:8) Let them curse it that curse the day, who are ready [prepared] to raise [rouse] up their mourning [leviathan].

The Hebrew word translated in the King James version as "mourning" is Leviathan.

(Job 3:9) Let the stars of the twilight thereof be dark; let it look for light, but have none; neither let it see the dawning of the day:

(Job 3:10) Because it shut not up the doors of my mother's womb, nor hid sorrow from mine eyes.

(Job 3:11) Why died I not from the womb? why did I not give up the ghost when I came out of the belly?

(Job 3:12) Why did the knees prevent [receive] me? or why the breasts that I should suck?

(Job 3:13) For now should I have lain still and been quiet, I should have slept: then had I been at rest,

The problem with Job's wish that he had never been born is he would never have the chance to sleep and rest. What he really wishes is that he would die to be out of his misery.

(Job 3:14) With kings and counsellors of the earth, which built desolate places for themselves;

(Job 3:15) Or with princes that had gold, who filled their houses with silver:

(Job 3:16) Or as an hidden untimely birth I had not been; as infants which never saw light.

(Job 3:17) There the wicked cease from troubling; and there the weary be at rest.

(Job 3:18) There the prisoners rest together; they hear not the voice of the oppressor.

(Job 3:19) The small and great are there; and the servant is free from his master.

(Job 3:20) Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery, and life unto the bitter in soul;

(Job 3:21) Which long for death, but it cometh not; and dig for it more than for hid treasures;

(Job 3:22) Which rejoice exceedingly, and are glad, when they can find the grave?

(Job 3:23) Why is light given to a man whose way is hid, and whom God hath hedged in?

(Job 3:24) For my sighing cometh before I eat, and my roarings are poured out like the waters.

(Job 3:25) For the thing which I greatly feared is come upon me, and that which I was afraid of is come unto me.

We all fear the kind of disaster that overtook Job. The word-faith teachers use this verse as evidence of their view that Job materialized his own troubles by his fear of them, by dwelling on them, by speaking them into existence. I reject the word-faith teaching. Even the Charismatic movement has this same tendency; superstition that what you say and think will materialize.

(Job 3:26) I was not in safety, neither had I rest, neither was I quiet; yet trouble came.

Eliphaz — Speech #1 

Eliphaz believes that hardship and trouble only comes to those who are guilty of sin, as a punishment for sin. Since Job has trouble, therefore he must have sinned. But this hardship is a form of chastening and correction from God; we should be happy about it because it will have a happy ending.

(Job 4:1) Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said,

(Job 4:2) If we assay [attempt] to commune [speak] with thee, wilt thou be grieved? but who can withhold himself from speaking?

Eliphaz asks if Job would mind if he said a few words, if it would make him weary and impatient. Then he says in effect, "never mind, I must speak my mind no matter the effect".

(Job 4:3) Behold, thou hast instructed many, and thou hast strengthened the weak hands.

(Job 4:4) Thy words have upholden him that was falling, and thou hast strengthened the feeble knees.

During his life, Job taught people and gave good council and encouraged people, probably by giving material assistance to those in need.

(Job 4:5) But now it is come upon thee, and thou faintest; it toucheth thee, and thou art troubled.

But now, Job is the one in need.

(Job 4:6) Is not this thy fear [of God], thy confidence, thy hope, and the uprightness of thy ways?

It's easy for an insensitive person to tell someone in extreme distress, "You should be comforted with your piety and hope in your righteousness". In other words, saintly people should not feel pain, anguish, remorse, grief, etc.

(Job 4:7) Remember, I pray thee, who ever perished, being innocent? or where were the righteous cut off?

Hardship and trouble only comes to those who are guilty of sin, as a punishment for sin.

(Job 4:8) Even as I have seen, they that plow iniquity, and sow wickedness, reap the same.

Certainly the wicked are ultimately punished by spending eternity in hell, in the lake of fire. Much of the Old Testament often states that the wicked will be judged even in this world but in later books it is clear that sometimes the punishment doesn't occur until after death.

(Job 4:9) NKJV: By the blast of God they perish, and by the breath of his anger are they consumed.

(Job 4:10) The roaring of the lion, and the voice of the fierce lion, and the teeth of the young lions, are broken.

(Job 4:11) The old lion perisheth for lack of prey, and the stout lion's [lioness'] whelps [cubs] are scattered abroad.

Even mighty animals are easily destroyed in the power of God's judgment; no creatures are immune from God's judgment. But notice that the lions are not judged for sinning since they can't sin.

Vision from a spirit

(Job 4:12) Now a thing was secretly brought to me, and mine ear received a little thereof.

(Job 4:13) In thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth on men,

(Job 4:14) Fear came upon me, and trembling, which made all my bones to shake.

(Job 4:15) Then a spirit passed before my face; the hair of my flesh stood up:

(Job 4:16) It stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof: an image was before mine eyes, there was silence, and I heard a voice, saying,

(Job 4:17) Shall mortal man be more just than God? shall a man be more pure than his maker?

God is more holy and more just than the creatures he created.

(Job 4:18) Behold, he put no trust in his servants; and his angels he charged with folly:

(Job 4:19) How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust, which are crushed before the moth?

Humans are even less discerning of truth than the angels. In other words, even though Job thinks he is innocent of guilt as the cause of his suffering, he is mistaken.

(Job 4:20) They are destroyed from morning to evening: they perish for ever without any regarding it.

(Job 4:21) Doth not their excellency which is in them go away? they die, even without wisdom.

(Job 5:1) Call now, if there be any that will answer thee; and to which of the saints wilt thou turn?

(Job 5:2) For wrath killeth the foolish man, and envy slayeth the silly one.

(Job 5:3) I have seen the foolish taking root: but suddenly I cursed his habitation.

(Job 5:4) His children are far from safety, and they are crushed in the gate, neither is there any to deliver them.

(Job 5:5) Whose harvest the hungry eateth up, and taketh it even out of the thorns, and the robber swalloweth up their substance.

(Job 5:6) Although affliction cometh not forth of the dust, neither doth trouble spring out of the ground;

(Job 5:7) Yet man is born unto trouble, as the sparks fly upward.

This is true; the ground is cursed and humans must struggle to survive.

(Job 5:8) I would seek unto God, and unto God would I commit my cause:

(Job 5:9) Which doeth great things and unsearchable; marvellous things without number:

(Job 5:10) Who giveth rain upon the earth, and sendeth waters upon the fields:

God is sovereign and in control of all events upon the earth.

(Job 5:11) To set up on high those that be low; that those which mourn may be exalted to safety.

(Job 5:12) He disappointeth the devices of the crafty, so that their hands cannot perform their enterprise.

The wicked are not allowed by God to prosper.

(Job 5:13) He taketh the wise in their own craftiness: and the counsel of the froward [obstinate] is carried headlong.

(Job 5:14) They meet with darkness in the day time, and grope in the noonday as in the night.

(Job 5:15) But he saveth the poor from the sword, from their mouth, and from the hand of the mighty.

The poor, presumably innocent of any wrongdoing, are protected by God.

(Job 5:16) So the poor hath hope, and iniquity stoppeth her mouth.

(Job 5:17) Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty:

Hardship is a form of chastening and correction from God; we should be happy about it.

(Job 5:18) For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole.

After God harms people to punish them, he then heals them.

(Job 5:19) He shall deliver thee in six troubles: yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee.

(Job 5:20) In famine he shall redeem thee from death: and in war from the power of the sword.

Eliphaz seems to be ignoring those who die in famine.

(Job 5:21) Thou shalt be hid from the scourge of the tongue: neither shalt thou be afraid of destruction when it cometh.

(Job 5:22) At destruction and famine thou shalt laugh: neither shalt thou be afraid of the beasts of the earth.

We are invincible; even animals cannot harm us.

(Job 5:23) For thou shalt be in league with the stones of the field: and the beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee.

(Job 5:24) And thou shalt know that thy tabernacle [tent] shall be in peace; and thou shalt visit thy habitation [abode], and shalt not sin.

(Job 5:25) Thou shalt know also that thy seed shall be great, and thine offspring as the grass of the earth.

Even though Job's children were killed and he has a horrible physical condition that could be fatal, Eliphaz assures Job he will survive to have more children.

(Job 5:26) Thou shalt come to thy grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in in his season.

I don't know how Eliphaz can promise Job that he won't die from his condition, especially since he has not remarked whether or not Job has repented of his wicked ways that caused God to judge him in the first place. Perhaps Eliphaz assumes that people who are judged by God automatically change their evil ways.

Notice that Eliphaz ignores the plight of those who do die young during calamities.

(Job 5:27) Lo this, we have searched it, so it is; hear it, and know thou it for thy good.

Job — Speech #2 

(Job 6:1) But Job answered and said,

(Job 6:2) Oh that my grief were throughly weighed, and my calamity laid in the balances together!

(Job 6:3) For now it would be heavier than the sand of the sea: therefore my words are swallowed up.

(Job 6:4) For the arrows of the Almighty are within me, the poison whereof drinketh up my spirit: the terrors of God do set themselves in array against me.

God's wrath expressed in life's trials and difficulties. God is in control of all things; even our trials and difficulties are examples of his wrath. God has allowed the spiritual powers of darkness to have dominion over this physical universe. Until God redeems it via the new heavens and new earth we will experience the wrath of the absence of God's presence.

(Job 6:5) Doth the wild ass [donkey] bray when he hath grass? or loweth the ox over his fodder?

We cry out to God when in need. (We also call out to God in praise and worship.) God does not experience our pain and suffering with us, rather, he hears our cries for help.

Technically a wild donkey is an ass, but I prefer to use the word "donkey" since some people may not know the proper use of these terms.

(Job 6:6) Can that which is unsavoury be eaten without salt? or is there any taste in the white of an egg?

(Job 6:7) The things that my soul refused to touch are as my sorrowful meat.

(Job 6:8) Oh that I might have my request; and that God would grant me the thing that I long for!

Job longs for relief from his pain and suffering.

(Job 6:9) Even that it would please God to destroy me; that he would let loose his hand, and cut me off!

Job thinks the solution to his dilemma is that God would kill him. But he should instead be asking for miraculous healing; it's just as likely God would do that as to kill him.

(Job 6:10) Then should I yet have comfort; yea, I would harden myself in sorrow: let him not spare; for I have not concealed the words of the Holy One.

Apparently Job thinks after death we will have comfort.

(Job 6:11) What is my strength, that I should hope? and what is mine end, that I should prolong my life?

(Job 6:12) Is my strength the strength of stones? or is my flesh of brass?

(Job 6:13) Is not my help in me? and is wisdom driven quite from me?

(Job 6:14) To him that is afflicted pity should be shewed from his friend; but he forsaketh the fear of the Almighty.

Job wishes his friends would have sympathy for him rather than calling on him to repent from sins he didn't actually commit. This reminds me of a Catholic rule to confess your mortal sins yearly; this idiotically assumes you have committed mortal sins.

(Job 6:15) My brethren have dealt deceitfully as a brook, and as the stream of brooks they pass away;

False words will not endure. It's unclear what Job had in mind exactly, probably something about how only Truth finally remains or that we should forget about things untrue.

(Job 6:16) Which are blackish by reason of the ice, and wherein the snow is hid:

(Job 6:17) What time they wax warm, they vanish: when it is hot, they are consumed out of their place.

(Job 6:18) The paths of their way are turned aside; they go to nothing, and perish.

(Job 6:19) The troops of Tema looked, the companies of Sheba waited for them.

(Job 6:20) They were confounded because they had hoped; they came thither, and were ashamed.

(Job 6:21) For now ye are nothing; ye see my casting down, and are afraid.

(Job 6:22) Did I say, Bring unto me? or, Give a reward for me of your substance?

(Job 6:23) Or, Deliver me from the enemy's hand? or, Redeem me from the hand of the mighty?

(Job 6:24) Teach me, and I will hold my tongue: and cause me to understand wherein I have erred.

Perhaps someone has some insight into how Job ended up in this predicament, and he is open to hearing about it. But no, his friends stoically insist Job sinned because that is why bad things happen to people. Of course we, the reader, already know what is really going on; that Satan is the cause.

(Job 6:25) How forcible are right words! but what doth your arguing reprove?

(Job 6:26) Do ye imagine to reprove words, and the speeches of one that is desperate, which are as wind?

(Job 6:27) Yea, ye overwhelm the fatherless, and ye dig a pit for your friend.

(Job 6:28) Now therefore be content, look upon me; for it is evident unto you if I lie.

(Job 6:29) Return, I pray you, let it not be iniquity; yea, return again, my righteousness is in it.

(Job 6:30) Is there iniquity in my tongue? cannot my taste discern perverse things?

If Job had committed mortal sin surely he would be aware of it. Perhaps his friends should have first asked him, but this would have been rude too.

(Job 7:1) Is there not an appointed time to man upon earth? are not his days also like the days of an hireling?

(Job 7:2) As a servant earnestly desireth the shadow, and as an hireling looketh for the reward of his work:

We all look to the future. In doing a task we can't wait for the feeling of having accomplished it. When in the hot sun we desire cool shade; when in cold air we desire warmth. These kinds of human desires and appetites will still be present in the new heavens and new earth, but without the anguish, pain, and suffering. The book of Ecclesiastes discuss all this but with a depressing tone.

(Job 7:3) So am I made to possess months of vanity, and wearisome nights are appointed to me.

(Job 7:4) When I lie down, I say, When shall I arise, and the night be gone? and I am full of tossings to and fro unto the dawning of the day.

(Job 7:5) My flesh is clothed with worms and clods of dust; my skin is broken, and become loathsome.

(Job 7:6) My days are swifter than a weaver's shuttle, and are spent without hope.

Being without hope is hell on earth. I suppose despair and hopelessness are major aspects of spending eternity in hell.

(Job 7:7) O remember that my life is wind: mine eye shall no more see good.

(Job 7:8) The eye of him that hath seen me shall see me no more: thine eyes are upon me, and I am not.

(Job 7:9) As the cloud is consumed and vanisheth away: so he that goeth down to the grave shall come up no more.

(Job 7:10) He shall return no more to his house, neither shall his place know him any more.

(Job 7:11) Therefore I will not refrain my mouth; I will speak in the anguish of my spirit; I will complain in the bitterness of my soul.

It is normal to cry out when in pain and suffering.

(Job 7:12) Am I a sea, or a whale, that thou settest a watch over me?

(Job 7:13) When I say, My bed shall comfort me, my couch shall ease my complaint;

(Job 7:14) Then thou scarest me with dreams, and terrifiest me through visions:

Nightmares are no fun.

(Job 7:15) So that my soul chooseth strangling, and death rather than my life.

Job would rather be strangled to death than endure this severe pain and suffering. I wonder if he means that someone else should strangle him? (if this were allowed which, of course, it isn't).

(Job 7:16) I loathe it; I would [will] not live alway [forever]: let me alone; for my days are vanity.

The book of Ecclesiastes uses the word vanity many times.

(Job 7:17) What is man, that thou shouldest magnify him? and that thou shouldest set thine heart upon him?

(Job 7:18) And that thou shouldest visit him every morning, and try him every moment?

(Job 7:19) How long wilt thou not depart from me, nor let me alone till I swallow down my spittle?

(Job 7:20) I have sinned; what shall I do unto thee, O thou preserver of men? why hast thou set me as a mark against thee, so that I am a burden to myself?

In calling out to God, Job confesses he has sinned. Yet he denies that these sins have caused his current predicament. Perhaps he is referring to character flaws and weaknesses, or to smaller venial sins.

Some translations say "if I have sinned" but this doesn't match with the next verse.

(Job 7:21) And why dost thou not pardon my transgression, and take away mine iniquity? for now shall I sleep in the dust; and thou shalt seek me in the morning, but I shall not be.

Bildad — Speech #1 

(Job 8:1) Then answered Bildad the Shuhite, and said,

(Job 8:2) How long wilt thou speak these things? and how long shall the words of thy mouth be like a strong wind?

(Job 8:3) Doth God pervert judgment? or doth the Almighty pervert justice?

Bildad assumes God is totally in control of each and every detail of life; but notice that Satan brought Job's misfortune, not God. Yes, God allowed it, but God does not do evil.

(Job 8:4) If thy children have sinned against him, and he have cast them away for their transgression;

Job suspected his children sinned, that's why he offered sacrifices for them. Perhaps their judgment was due to their own sin.

(Job 8:5) If thou wouldest seek unto God betimes [soon], and make thy supplication to the Almighty;

(Job 8:6) If thou wert pure and upright; surely now he would awake for thee, and make the habitation of thy righteousness prosperous.

(Job 8:7) Though thy beginning was small, yet thy latter end should greatly increase.

(Job 8:8) For inquire, I pray thee, of the former age, and prepare thyself to the search of their fathers:

(Job 8:9) (For we are but of yesterday, and know nothing, because our days upon earth are a shadow:)

(Job 8:10) Shall not they teach thee, and tell thee, and utter words out of their heart?

(Job 8:11) Can the rush grow up without mire? can the flag grow without water?

(Job 8:12) Whilst it is yet in his greenness, and not cut down, it withereth before any other herb.

(Job 8:13) So are the paths of all that forget God; and the hypocrite's hope shall perish:

(Job 8:14) Whose hope shall be cut off, and whose trust shall be a spider's web.

(Job 8:15) He shall lean upon his house, but it shall not stand: he shall hold it fast, but it shall not endure.

(Job 8:16) He is green before the sun, and his branch shooteth forth in his garden.

(Job 8:17) His roots are wrapped about the heap, and seeth the place of stones.

(Job 8:18) If he destroy him from his place, then it shall deny him, saying, I have not seen thee.

(Job 8:19) Behold, this is the joy of his way, and out of the earth shall others grow.

(Job 8:20) Behold, God will not cast away a perfect man, neither will he help the evil doers:

Ultimately this is true; the righteous will spend eternity in the new heavens and new earth and the wicked will spend eternity in hell.

(Job 8:21) Till he fill thy mouth with laughing, and thy lips with rejoicing.

(Job 8:22) They that hate thee shall be clothed with shame; and the dwelling place of the wicked shall come to nought.

Job — Speech #3 

(Job 9:1) Then Job answered and said,

(Job 9:2) I know it is so of a truth: but how should man be just with God?

(Job 9:3) If he will contend with him, he cannot answer him one of a thousand.

(Job 9:4) He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength: who hath hardened himself against him, and hath prospered?

(Job 9:5) Which removeth the mountains, and they know not: which overturneth them in his anger.

(Job 9:6) Which shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble.

Critics object that the earth is not supported by pillars but actually it is; just below the surface of the earth's crust is bedrock which supports the dirt and soil above. The weight is distributed directly below because gravity pulls toward the center; thus, each part of ground above is supported by a pillar of bedrock below if you were to measure the forces of stress and strain.

It appears these people had experiences with earthquakes, perhaps violent ones, and had at least heard firsthand accounts of volcanoes.

(Job 9:7) Which commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; and sealeth up the stars.

(Job 9:8) Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea.

(Job 9:9) Which maketh Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south.

(Job 9:10) Which doeth great things past finding out; yea, and wonders without number.

(Job 9:11) Lo, he goeth by me, and I see him not: he passeth on also, but I perceive him not.

(Job 9:12) Behold, he taketh away, who can hinder him? who will say unto him, What doest thou?

(Job 9:13) If God will not withdraw his anger, the proud helpers do stoop under him.

(Job 9:14) How much less shall I answer him, and choose out my words to reason with him?

(Job 9:15) Whom, though I were righteous, yet would I not answer, but I would make supplication to my judge.

(Job 9:16) If I had called, and he had answered me; yet would I not believe that he had hearkened unto my voice.

(Job 9:17) For he breaketh me with a tempest, and multiplieth my wounds without cause.

(Job 9:18) He will not suffer me to take my breath, but filleth me with bitterness.

(Job 9:19) If I speak of strength, lo, he is strong: and if of judgment, who shall set me a time to plead?

(Job 9:20) If I justify myself, mine own mouth shall condemn me: if I say, I am perfect, it shall also prove me perverse.

(Job 9:21) Though I were perfect, yet would I not know my soul: I would despise my life.

(Job 9:22) This is one thing, therefore I said it, He destroyeth the perfect and the wicked.

(Job 9:23) If the scourge slay suddenly, he will laugh at the trial of the innocent.

(Job 9:24) The earth is given into the hand of the wicked: he covereth the faces of the judges thereof; if not, where, and who is he?

(Job 9:25) Now my days are swifter than a post: they flee away, they see no good.

(Job 9:26) They are passed away as the swift ships: as the eagle that hasteth to the prey.

(Job 9:27) If I say, I will forget my complaint, I will leave off my heaviness, and comfort myself:

(Job 9:28) I am afraid of all my sorrows, I know that thou wilt not hold me innocent.

(Job 9:29) If I be wicked, why then labour I in vain?

(Job 9:30) If I wash myself with snow water, and make my hands never [clean with soap] so clean;

Job was aware that bodily cleanliness does not make you right with God. It appears some thought it does or he wouldn't have mentioned it.

(Job 9:31) Yet shalt thou plunge me in the ditch, and mine own clothes shall abhor me.

(Job 9:32) For he is not a man, as I am, that I should answer him, and we should come together in judgment.

(Job 9:33) Neither is there any daysman betwixt us, that might lay his hand upon us both.

(Job 9:34) Let him take his rod away from me, and let not his fear terrify me:

The image of hitting with a rod is clearly an idiom. Even though I have adopted a strictly literal system of interpretation, there are cases where idioms come into play. Idioms are not figures of speech, at least not according to several dictionaries.

(Job 9:35) Then would I speak, and not fear him; but it is not so with me.

(Job 10:1) My soul is weary of my life; I will leave my complaint upon myself; I will speak in the bitterness of my soul.

People living in great hardship or suffering become weary of living. When the misery of day to day living exceeds the joys, we might long for eternity in the new heavens and new earth.

(Job 10:2) I will say unto God, Do not condemn me; shew me wherefore thou contendest with me.

(Job 10:3) Is it good unto thee that thou shouldest oppress, that thou shouldest despise the work of thine hands, and shine upon the counsel of the wicked?

It is natural for us to judge God's character based on observing reality. In my view, God doesn't do anything causing pain, suffering, misery, or death. It is common for Christians to seek for reasons God would do such horrible things to which I answer: he doesn't. Some have solved this dilemma by proclaiming two gods; one good and one evil. But of course there is only one God, and he is supremely Good. All pain, suffering, misery, and death in this present world come from the powers of darkness who had a hand in creating this universe.

(Job 10:4) Hast thou eyes of flesh? or seest thou as man seeth?

(Job 10:5) Are thy days as the days of man? are thy years as man's days,

(Job 10:6) That thou inquirest after mine iniquity, and searchest after my sin?

(Job 10:7) Thou knowest that I am not wicked; and there is none that can deliver out of thine hand.

(Job 10:8) Thine hands have made me and fashioned me together round about; yet thou dost destroy me.

(Job 10:9) Remember, I beseech thee, that thou hast made me as the clay; and wilt thou bring me into dust again?

Why would God create humans so magnificent and wonderful only to later kill them with their body decomposing into the dirt? We could wonder the same kind of thing about anything we create. For example, I compose a beautiful musical composition or write down an important idea, but no one hears or reads them and they become lost forever, even for me. Amazing creative acts of the mind exist only in the moment, as a fleeting experience. My answer is that in the new heavens and new earth nothing is lost. All memories (except those sinful ones) are available to us.

(Job 10:10) Hast thou not poured me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese?

(Job 10:11) Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and hast fenced me with bones and sinews.

(Job 10:12) Thou hast granted me life and favour, and thy visitation hath preserved my spirit.

(Job 10:13) And these things hast thou hid in thine heart: I know that this is with thee.

(Job 10:14) If I sin, then thou markest [take note of] me, and thou wilt not acquit me from mine iniquity.

Job appears to believe that God judges us in this life by sending us hardship.

(Job 10:15) If I be wicked, woe unto me; and if I be righteous, yet will I not lift up my head. I am full of confusion; therefore see thou mine affliction;

Job is a righteous man yet is disgraced by his illness. Even Jesus, who was sinless, was disgraced by this world. Only in the new heavens and new earth will we experience the fullness of God's grace upon us and enjoy the eternal utopia we were created for. Perhaps this is a theme of the book of Job, that their understanding of the eternal afterlife was incomplete.

(Job 10:16) For it increaseth. Thou huntest me as a fierce lion: and again thou shewest thyself marvellous upon me.

(Job 10:17) Thou renewest thy witnesses against me, and increasest thine indignation upon me; changes and war are against me.

(Job 10:18) Wherefore then hast thou brought me forth out of the womb? Oh that I had given up the ghost, and no eye had seen me!

(Job 10:19) I should have been as though I had not been; I should have been carried from the womb to the grave.

(Job 10:20) Are not my days few? cease then, and let me alone, that I may take comfort a little,

(Job 10:21) Before I go whence I shall not return, even to the land of darkness and the shadow of death;

(Job 10:22) A land of darkness, as darkness itself; and of the shadow of death, without any order, and where the light is as darkness.

Zophar — Speech #1 

(Job 11:1) Then answered Zophar the Naamathite, and said,

(Job 11:2) Should not the multitude of words be answered? and should a man full of talk be justified?

(Job 11:3) Should thy lies make men hold their peace? and when thou mockest, shall no man make thee ashamed?

What kind of friend is this calling Job a liar?

(Job 11:4) For thou hast said, My doctrine is pure, and I am clean in thine eyes.

(Job 11:5) But oh that God would speak, and open his lips against thee;

(Job 11:6) And that he would shew thee the secrets of wisdom, that they are double to that which is! Know therefore that God exacteth of thee less than thine iniquity deserveth.

This is a Protestant notion, that humans are totally depraved and deserve eternity in hell.

(Job 11:7) Canst thou by searching find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection?

(Job 11:8) It is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell [sheol]; what canst thou know?

It was an error thinking people who died went down into the earth.

(Job 11:9) The measure thereof is longer than the earth, and broader than the sea.

(Job 11:10) If he cut off, and shut up, or gather together, then who can hinder him?

(Job 11:11) For he knoweth vain men: he seeth wickedness also; will he not then consider it?

(Job 11:12) For vain man would be wise, though man be born like a wild ass's [donkey's] colt.

Technically a wild donkey is an ass, but I prefer to use the word "donkey" since some people may not know the proper use of these terms.

(Job 11:13) If thou prepare thine heart, and stretch out thine hands toward him;

(Job 11:14) If iniquity be in thine hand, put it far away, and let not wickedness dwell in thy tabernacles [tents].

(Job 11:15) For then shalt thou lift up thy face without spot; yea, thou shalt be stedfast, and shalt not fear:

(Job 11:16) Because thou shalt forget thy misery, and remember it as waters that pass away:

(Job 11:17) And thine age shall be clearer than the noonday: thou shalt shine forth, thou shalt be as the morning.

(Job 11:18) And thou shalt be secure, because there is hope; yea, thou shalt dig about thee, and thou shalt take thy rest in safety.

(Job 11:19) Also thou shalt lie down, and none shall make thee afraid; yea, many shall make suit unto thee.

(Job 11:20) But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and they shall not escape, and their hope shall be as the giving up of the ghost.

Job — Speech #4 

(Job 12:1) And Job answered and said,

(Job 12:2) No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.

Job mocks his friends claiming they think they are the only people who know anything.

(Job 12:3) But I have understanding as well as you; I am not inferior to you: yea, who knoweth not such things as these?

Job has wisdom about things also. Really, the book of Job is a dialog about whose knowledge of the workings of the spiritual realm is correct.

(Job 12:4) I am as one mocked of his neighbour, who calleth upon God, and he answereth him: the just upright man is laughed to scorn.

Job is a righteous man. He calls upon God and God answers, but his neighbors mock him as they do all righteous people.

(Job 12:5) He that is ready to slip with his feet is as a lamp despised in the thought of him that is at ease.

There are two people: one is at ease; one is about to trip up and have misfortune. The person who is at ease despises the misfortune of others thinking it won't happen to them.

(Job 12:6) The tabernacles [tents] of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure; into whose hand God bringeth abundantly.

Bad people exist in this world and seem to prosper.

(Job 12:7) But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; and the fowls of the air, and they shall tell thee:

Job mocks his friends by telling them to ask animals about the workings of the world.

(Job 12:8) Or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee: and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee.

Job mocks his friends by telling them to ask animals and the earth itself about the workings of the world.

(Job 12:9) Who knoweth not in [of] all these that the hand of the LORD hath wrought [done] this?

Even the plants and animals know that God has provided for everything. These certainly don't do anything of their own to provide for their needs except consume what they find at hand. This verse supports my philosophy of the soul. Every living creature has an awareness of God and can worship him. These will all be "resurrected" and will inhabit the new heavens and new earth. Each animal and plant and spirit creature has a different combination of attributes of the soul and humans have an ability to recognize God in a way that plants and animals don't. Anyway, God is mocking Zophar for thinking so highly of his ability to discern basic things about reality and for thinking this knowledge makes him special.

(Job 12:10) In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind.

(Job 12:11) Doth not the ear try words? and the mouth taste his meat?

(Job 12:12) With the ancient is wisdom; and in length of days understanding.

Elderly people are wise.

(Job 12:13) With him is wisdom and strength, he hath counsel and understanding.

(Job 12:14) Behold, he breaketh down, and it cannot be built again: he shutteth up a man, and there can be no opening.

(Job 12:15) Behold, he withholdeth the waters, and they dry up: also he sendeth them out, and they overturn the earth.

(Job 12:16) With him is strength and wisdom: the deceived and the deceiver are his.

(Job 12:17) He leadeth counsellors away spoiled, and maketh the judges fools.

(Job 12:18) He looseth the bond of kings, and girdeth their loins with a girdle.

(Job 12:19) He leadeth princes away spoiled, and overthroweth the mighty.

(Job 12:20) He removeth away the speech of the trusty, and taketh away the understanding of the aged.

(Job 12:21) He poureth contempt upon princes, and weakeneth the strength of the mighty.

(Job 12:22) He discovereth deep things out of darkness, and bringeth out to light the shadow of death.

(Job 12:23) He increaseth the nations, and destroyeth them: he enlargeth the nations, and straiteneth them again.

(Job 12:24) He taketh away the heart of the chief of the people of the earth, and causeth them to wander in a wilderness where there is no way.

(Job 12:25) They grope in the dark without light, and he maketh them to stagger like a drunken man.

(Job 13:1) Lo, mine eye hath seen all this, mine ear hath heard and understood it.

(Job 13:2) What ye know, the same do I know also: I am not inferior unto you.

(Job 13:3) Surely [however] I would speak to the Almighty, and I desire to reason [argue] with God.

Job wants to argue with God not to correct him but, rather, to be instructed by him. This, contrary to his friends who speak falsely in God's name.

(Job 13:4) But ye are forgers of lies, ye are all physicians of no value.

(Job 13:5) O that ye would altogether hold your peace! and it should be your wisdom.

(Job 13:6) Hear now my reasoning, and hearken to the pleadings of my lips.

(Job 13:7) Will ye speak wickedly for God? and talk deceitfully for him?

Speaking falsely in God's name.

(Job 13:8) Will ye accept his person? will ye contend for God?

(Job 13:9) Is it good that he should search you out? or as one man mocketh another, do ye so mock him?

(Job 13:10) He will surely reprove you, if ye do secretly accept persons.

(Job 13:11) Shall not his excellency make you afraid? and his dread fall upon you?

(Job 13:12) Your remembrances are like unto ashes, your bodies to bodies of clay.

(Job 13:13) Hold your peace, let me alone, that I may speak, and let come on me what will.

(Job 13:14) Wherefore do I take my flesh in my teeth, and put my life in mine hand?

(Job 13:15) Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him: but I will maintain mine own ways before him.

(Job 13:16) He also shall be my salvation: for an hypocrite shall not come before him.

(Job 13:17) Hear diligently my speech, and my declaration with your ears.

(Job 13:18) Behold now, I have ordered my cause; I know that I shall be justified.

(Job 13:19) Who is he that will plead with me? for now, if I hold my tongue, I shall give up the ghost.

(Job 13:20) Only do not two things unto me: then will I not hide myself from thee.

(Job 13:21) Withdraw thine hand far from me: and let not thy dread make me afraid.

(Job 13:22) Then call thou, and I will answer: or let me speak, and answer thou me.

(Job 13:23) How many are mine iniquities and sins? make me to know my transgression and my sin.

(Job 13:24) Wherefore hidest thou thy face, and holdest me for thine enemy?

(Job 13:25) Wilt thou break [torment] a leaf driven to and fro? and wilt thou pursue the dry stubble [straw]?

Job's friends should be encouraging him but instead they are crushing his spirit.

(Job 13:26) For thou writest bitter things against me, and makest me to possess the iniquities of my youth.

(Job 13:27) Thou puttest my feet also in the stocks, and lookest narrowly unto all my paths; thou settest a print upon the heels of my feet.

(Job 13:28) And he, as a rotten thing, consumeth, as a garment that is moth eaten.

(Job 14:1) Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble.

Job had a good life so why does he now say life is full of trouble? When you are suffering, memories of good times have little value.

We would think of a few days as less than a week. Job uses the phrase as an idiom meaning the shortness of life.

(Job 14:2) He cometh forth like a flower, and is cut down: he fleeth also as a shadow, and continueth not.

(Job 14:3) And dost thou open thine eyes upon such an one, and bringest me into judgment with thee?

(Job 14:4) Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one.

(Job 14:5) Seeing his days are determined, the number of his months are with thee, thou hast appointed his bounds that he cannot pass;

(Job 14:6) Turn from him, that he may rest, till he shall accomplish, as an hireling, his day.

(Job 14:7) For there is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch thereof will not cease.

(Job 14:8) Though the root thereof wax old in the earth, and the stock thereof die in the ground;

(Job 14:9) Yet through the scent of water it will bud, and bring forth boughs like a plant.

(Job 14:10) But man dieth, and wasteth away: yea, man giveth up the ghost, and where is he?

(Job 14:11) As the waters fail from the sea, and the flood decayeth and drieth up:

(Job 14:12) So man lieth down, and riseth not: till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.

(Job 14:13) O that thou wouldest hide me in the grave [sheol], that thou wouldest keep me secret [conceal me], until thy wrath be past [retreats], that thou wouldest appoint me a set time, and remember me!

Job knows the time after death is temporary until the final general resurrection. He knows there will be a judgment of the wicked and wants to avoid it, to be kept safe from it.

(Job 14:14) If a man die, shall he live again? all the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my change come.

Job knows there will be a final general resurrection followed by eternal utopia — the new heavens and new earth.

(Job 14:15) Thou shalt call, and I will answer thee: thou wilt have a desire to the work of thine hands.

(Job 14:16) For now thou numberest my steps: dost thou not [you do not] watch over my sin?

God resides within the soul and spirit of the redeemed and, therefore, can't see their sins. God is holy and is not contaminated by seeing sin; he has no desire to see sin. He merely hears our cries for redemption and responds to this. This is why the unredeemed are eternally consigned to the lake of fire; they don't call out to God to be freed from the ravages of sin preferring, instead, to revel in it.

(Job 14:17) My transgression is sealed up in a bag, and thou sewest up mine iniquity.

The sins of the righteous are removed from our soul and spirit permanently. Note that sins are not merely covered over.

(Job 14:18) And surely the mountain falling cometh to nought, and the rock is removed out of his place.

(Job 14:19) The waters wear the stones: thou washest away the things which grow out of the dust of the earth; and thou destroyest the hope of man.

(Job 14:20) Thou prevailest for ever against him, and he passeth: thou changest his countenance, and sendest him away.

(Job 14:21) His sons come to honour, and he knoweth it not; and they are brought low, but he perceiveth it not of them.

(Job 14:22) But his flesh upon him shall have pain, and his soul within him shall mourn.

Eliphaz — Speech #2 

(Job 15:1) Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite, and said,

Eliphaz has some pretty wacky views which are easy to refute upon simple observation.

(Job 15:2) Should a wise man utter vain knowledge, and fill his belly with the east wind?

By east wind is probably meant the hot desert wind — in other words, hot air. Eliphaz accuses Job of not being wise.

(Job 15:3) Should he reason with unprofitable talk? or with speeches wherewith he can do no good?

(Job 15:4) Yea, thou castest off fear [of God], and restrainest [hinder] prayer before God.

(Job 15:5) For thy mouth uttereth thine iniquity, and thou choosest the tongue of the crafty.

(Job 15:6) Thine own mouth condemneth thee, and not I: yea, thine own lips testify against thee.

Eliphaz is able to judge from Job's words that he is indeed guilty of wickedness.

(Job 15:7) Art thou the first man that was born? or wast thou made before the hills?

(Job 15:8) Hast thou heard the secret of God? and dost thou restrain [limit] wisdom to thyself?

(Job 15:9) What knowest thou, that we know not? what understandest thou, which is not in us?

Does Job really think he is wiser than his three friends? But what if the three have different opinions? who decides which is correct? Apparently, Eliphaz assumes he is correct.

(Job 15:10) With us are both the grayheaded and very aged men, much elder than thy father.

It is uncertain who is older, Job or his friends. Perhaps they are referring to their ancestors who passed-on wisdom.

(Job 15:11) Are the consolations of God small with thee? is there any secret thing with thee?

(Job 15:12) Why doth thine heart carry thee away? and what do thy eyes wink at,

(Job 15:13) That thou turnest thy spirit against God, and lettest such words go out of thy mouth?

Whether Job's words are against God?

(Job 15:14) What is man, that he should be clean? and he which is born of a woman, that he should be righteous?

Eliphaz seems to believe that Job's views are misguided since everyone is totally depraved. He mocks Job for insisting he is innocent of any wrongdoing and for repeatedly claiming his unfortunate condition is not caused by his own sin. This argument wrongly assumes everything bad that happens to us in life is caused by our original sin. This ignores the activities of the wicked spirits in the spiritual realm who seek to harm us and to destroy us. It also wrongly assumes people can't be righteous — a Protestant notion. The word "clean" seems to refer to being free from the effects of one's sin; it is a synonym for the word "righteous".

(Job 15:15) Behold, he putteth no trust in his saints; yea, the heavens are not clean in his sight.

(Job 15:16) How much more abominable and filthy is man, which drinketh iniquity like water?

(Job 15:17) I will shew thee, hear me; and that which I have seen I will declare;

Eliphaz considers himself to be an expert on these topics.

(Job 15:18) Which wise men have told from their fathers [ancestors], and have not hid it:

They passed on wisdom from their ancestors. If you don't do this, it's lost forever.

(Job 15:19) Unto whom alone the earth was given, and no stranger passed among them.

(Job 15:20) The wicked man travaileth with pain all his days, and the number of years is hidden to the oppressor.

Eliphaz uses bad logic. His argument is that since all men are wicked, therefore, all bad things that happen to a person in this life are caused by their own wickedness. He also assumes that since some bad things that happen to people are clearly self-caused, therefore, all bad things that happen to a person are self-caused. He also assumes that a person who is wicked will have nothing good in his life; only bad will occur. This is, of course, easy to refute. It is easy to find examples of wicked people who have good things happen in their life. From this bad observation Eliphaz then wrongly concludes that if anything bad happens to anyone, this proves that they are wicked.

(Job 15:21) A dreadful sound is in his ears: in prosperity the destroyer shall come upon him.

(Job 15:22) He believeth not that he shall return out of darkness, and he is waited for of the sword.

(Job 15:23) He wandereth abroad for bread, saying, Where is it? he knoweth that the day of darkness is ready at his hand.

(Job 15:24) Trouble and anguish shall make him afraid; they shall prevail against him, as a king ready to the battle.

(Job 15:25) For he stretcheth out his hand against God, and strengtheneth himself against the Almighty.

Wicked people actively oppose God. Many non-Christians do not do this. Perhaps they've never seriously thought about spiritual topics. Perhaps they've never heard a reasonable story about God. (Certainly the fundamentalist evangelical Protestant ideas sound bizarre to most people, including me.) What matters is that, at death, when Jesus reveals himself, they accept him. Even some who have actively opposed God all their life may have a change of heart in the presence of the glorified Christ.

(Job 15:26) He runneth upon him, even on his neck, upon the thick bosses of his bucklers:

(Job 15:27) Because he covereth his face with his fatness, and maketh collops [folds] of fat on his flanks [sides].

(Job 15:28) And he dwelleth in desolate cities, and in houses which no man inhabiteth, which are ready to become heaps.

(Job 15:29) He shall not be rich, neither shall his substance continue, neither shall he prolong the perfection thereof upon the earth.

(Job 15:30) He shall not depart out of darkness; the flame shall dry up his branches, and by the breath of his mouth shall he go away.

(Job 15:31) Let not him that is deceived trust in vanity: for vanity shall be his recompence.

(Job 15:32) It shall be accomplished before his time, and his branch shall not be green.

(Job 15:33) He shall shake off his unripe grape as the vine, and shall cast off his flower as the olive.

(Job 15:34) For the congregation of hypocrites shall be desolate, and fire shall consume the tabernacles [tents] of bribery.

(Job 15:35) They conceive mischief, and bring forth vanity, and their belly prepareth deceit.

Job — Speech #5 

(Job 16:1) Then Job answered and said,

(Job 16:2) I have heard many such things: miserable comforters are ye all.

Job has heard this kind of wrong thinking before. He obviously doesn't believe it.

Job makes an important point. When someone is suffering they should be comforted. Why would Eliphaz want to condemn Job rather than help him endure his suffering? It is as if he is so caught up in his own ideas and theories that he cares about these more that about Job, who he is supposedly ministering to. Imagine if people who ministered to the poor and needy insulted them and blamed them for being needy; what they need is food and care.

(Job 16:3) Shall vain words have an end? or what emboldeneth thee that thou answerest?

(Job 16:4) I also could speak as ye do: if your soul were in my soul's stead, I could heap up words against you, and shake mine head at you.

(Job 16:5) But I would strengthen you with my mouth, and the moving of my lips should asswage [assuaged / lessened] your grief.

If his friends were the ones having these trials instead of Job, he would say things to comfort them. Perhaps it would not ease their physical pain but he would not torment their souls by accusing them of being unrighteous and stupid and out of harmony with God.

(Job 16:6) Though I speak, my grief is not asswaged [assuaged / lessened]: and though I forbear, what am I eased?

Neither speaking nor being quiet eases Job's pain.

(Job 16:7) But now he hath made me weary: thou hast made desolate all my company.

(Job 16:8) And thou hast filled me with wrinkles, which is a witness against me: and my leanness rising up in me beareth witness to my face.

(Job 16:9) He teareth me in his wrath, who hateth me: he gnasheth upon me with his teeth; mine enemy sharpeneth his eyes upon me.

Job's enemies, the ungodly, hate him. They look at him (so they can harm him) and gnash their teeth at him in anger.

(Job 16:10) They have gaped upon me with their mouth; they have smitten me upon the cheek reproachfully; they have gathered themselves together against me.

(Job 16:11) God hath delivered me to the ungodly, and turned me over into the hands of the wicked.

Job is calling his friends ungodly because of their harsh treatment of him.

(Job 16:12) I was at ease, but he hath broken me asunder: he hath also taken me by my neck, and shaken me to pieces, and set me up for his mark.

(Job 16:13) His archers compass me round about, he cleaveth my reins asunder, and doth not spare; he poureth out my gall upon the ground.

(Job 16:14) He breaketh me with breach upon breach, he runneth upon me like a giant.

(Job 16:15) I have sewed sackcloth upon my skin, and defiled my horn in the dust.

(Job 16:16) My face is foul with weeping, and on my eyelids is the shadow of death;

(Job 16:17) Not for any injustice in mine hands: also my prayer is pure.

(Job 16:18) O earth, cover not thou my blood, and let my cry have no place.

(Job 16:19) Also now, behold, my witness is in heaven, and my record [recorder] is on high.

The word "heaven" refers to the spiritual realm. The events and memories of our life are recorded there. During purgatory those that dishonor God are purged. The others remain forever for us to use as we choose.

(Job 16:20) My friends scorn me: but mine eye poureth out tears unto God.

(Job 16:21) O that one might plead for a man with God, as a man pleadeth for his neighbour!

(Job 16:22) When a few years are come, then I shall go the way whence I shall not return.

(Job 17:1) My breath is corrupt, my days are extinct, the graves are ready for me.

(Job 17:2) Are there not mockers with me? and doth not mine eye continue in their provocation?

(Job 17:3) Lay down now, put me in a surety with thee; who is he that will strike hands with me?

(Job 17:4) For thou hast hid their heart from understanding: therefore shalt thou not exalt them.

(Job 17:5) He that speaketh flattery to his friends, even the eyes of his children shall fail.

(Job 17:6) He hath made me also a byword of the people; and aforetime I was as a tabret.

(Job 17:7) Mine eye also is dim by reason of sorrow, and all my members are as a shadow.

(Job 17:8) Upright men shall be astonied at this, and the innocent shall stir up himself against the hypocrite.

(Job 17:9) The righteous also shall hold on his way, and he that hath clean hands shall be stronger and stronger.

(Job 17:10) But as for you all, do ye return, and come now: for I cannot find one wise man among you.

(Job 17:11) My days are past, my purposes are broken off, even the thoughts of my heart.

(Job 17:12) They change the night into day: the light is short because of darkness.

(Job 17:13) If I wait, the grave is mine house: I have made my bed in the darkness.

(Job 17:14) I have said to corruption, Thou art my father: to the worm, Thou art my mother, and my sister.

(Job 17:15) And where is now my hope? as for my hope, who shall see it?

(Job 17:16) They shall go down to the bars of the pit, when our rest together is in the dust.

Bildad — Speech #2 

(Job 18:1) Then answered Bildad the Shuhite, and said,

(Job 18:2) How long will it be ere ye make an end of words? mark, and afterwards we will speak.

(Job 18:3) Wherefore are we counted as beasts, and reputed vile in your sight?

(Job 18:4) He teareth himself in his anger: shall the earth be forsaken for thee? and shall the rock be removed out of his place?

(Job 18:5) Yea, the light of the wicked shall be put out, and the spark of his fire shall not shine.

(Job 18:6) The light shall be dark in his tabernacle [tent], and his candle shall be put out with him.

(Job 18:7) The steps of his strength shall be straitened, and his own counsel shall cast him down.

(Job 18:8) For he is cast into a net by his own feet, and he walketh upon a snare.

(Job 18:9) The gin shall take him by the heel, and the robber shall prevail against him.

(Job 18:10) The snare is laid for him in the ground, and a trap for him in the way.

(Job 18:11) Terrors shall make him afraid on every side, and shall drive him to his feet.

(Job 18:12) His strength shall be hungerbitten, and destruction shall be ready at his side.

(Job 18:13) It shall devour the strength of his skin: even the firstborn of death shall devour his strength.

(Job 18:14) His confidence shall be rooted out of his tabernacle [tent], and it shall bring him to the king of terrors.

(Job 18:15) It shall dwell in his tabernacle [tent], because it is none of his: brimstone shall be scattered upon his habitation.

(Job 18:16) His roots shall be dried up beneath, and above shall his branch be cut off.

(Job 18:17) His remembrance shall perish from the earth, and he shall have no name in the street.

(Job 18:18) He shall be driven from light into darkness, and chased out of the world.

(Job 18:19) He shall neither have son nor nephew among his people, nor any remaining in his dwellings.

(Job 18:20) They that come after him shall be astonied at his day, as they that went before were affrighted.

(Job 18:21) Surely such are the dwellings of the wicked, and this is the place of him that knoweth not God.

Job — Speech #6 

(Job 19:1) Then Job answered and said,

(Job 19:2) How long will ye vex my soul, and break me in pieces with words?

(Job 19:3) These ten times have ye reproached me: ye are not ashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me.

(Job 19:4) And be it indeed that I have erred, mine error remaineth with myself.

(Job 19:5) If indeed ye will magnify yourselves against me, and plead against me my reproach:

(Job 19:6) Know now that God hath overthrown me, and hath compassed me with his net.

(Job 19:7) Behold, I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard: I cry aloud, but there is no judgment.

(Job 19:8) He hath fenced up my way that I cannot pass, and he hath set darkness in my paths.

(Job 19:9) He hath stripped me of my glory, and taken the crown from my head.

(Job 19:10) He hath destroyed me on every side, and I am gone: and mine hope hath he removed like a tree.

(Job 19:11) He hath also kindled his wrath against me, and he counteth me unto him as one of his enemies.

(Job 19:12) His troops come together, and raise up their way against me, and encamp round about my tabernacle.

(Job 19:13) He hath put my brethren far from me, and mine acquaintance are verily estranged from me.

(Job 19:14) My kinsfolk have failed, and my familiar friends have forgotten me.

(Job 19:15) They that dwell in mine house, and my maids, count me for a stranger: I am an alien in their sight.

(Job 19:16) I called my servant, and he gave me no answer; I intreated him with my mouth.

(Job 19:17) My breath is strange to my wife, though I intreated for the children's sake of mine own body.

(Job 19:18) Yea, young children despised me; I arose, and they spake against me.

(Job 19:19) All my inward friends abhorred me: and they whom I loved are turned against me.

(Job 19:20) My bone cleaveth to my skin and to my flesh, and I am escaped with the skin of my teeth.

(Job 19:21) Have pity upon me, have pity upon me, O ye my friends; for the hand of God hath touched me.

(Job 19:22) Why do ye persecute me as God, and are not satisfied with my flesh?

(Job 19:23) Oh that my words were now written! oh that they were printed in a book!

(Job 19:24) That they were graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever!

(Job 19:25) For I know that my redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth:

This verse from centuries before the time of Christ confirms that the Old Testament people were aware of the teaching of the new heavens and new earth. Many Christians think that the ultimate goal is to spend eternity in heaven, but as this verse confirms, some time after death, we will again stand upon the earth.

Job's main concern was his redemption. This demonstrates that the Old Testament had redemption as its focus. God is the redeemer, therefore, we must come to him in faith and love if we desire redemption. This also implies that we need to be redeemed from something. Certainly we need to be redeemed from death, perhaps that is all Job had in mind. But he looks forward to the day in which he will live again.

(Job 19:26) And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God:

(Job 19:27) Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.

(Job 19:28) But ye should say, Why persecute we him, seeing the root of the matter is found in me?

(Job 19:29) Be ye afraid of the sword: for wrath bringeth the punishments of the sword, that ye may know there is a judgment.

Zophar — Speech #2 

(Job 20:1) Then answered Zophar the Naamathite, and said,

(Job 20:2) Therefore do my thoughts cause me to answer, and for this I make haste.

(Job 20:3) I have heard the check of my reproach, and the spirit of my understanding causeth me to answer.

(Job 20:4) Knowest thou not this of old, since man was placed upon earth,

(Job 20:5) That the triumphing of the wicked is short, and the joy of the hypocrite but for a moment?

(Job 20:6) Though his excellency mount up to the heavens, and his head reach unto the clouds;

(Job 20:7) Yet he shall perish for ever like his own dung: they which have seen him shall say, Where is he?

(Job 20:8) He shall fly away as a dream, and shall not be found: yea, he shall be chased away as a vision of the night.

(Job 20:9) The eye also which saw him shall see him no more; neither shall his place any more behold him.

(Job 20:10) His children shall seek to please the poor, and his hands shall restore their goods.

(Job 20:11) His bones are full of the sin of his youth, which shall lie down with him in the dust.

(Job 20:12) Though wickedness be sweet in his mouth, though he hide it under his tongue;

(Job 20:13) Though he spare it, and forsake it not; but keep it still within his mouth:

(Job 20:14) Yet his meat in his bowels is turned, it is the gall of asps within him.

(Job 20:15) He hath swallowed down riches, and he shall vomit them up again: God shall cast them out of his belly.

(Job 20:16) He shall suck the poison of asps: the viper's tongue shall slay him.

(Job 20:17) He shall not see the rivers, the floods, the brooks of honey and butter.

(Job 20:18) That which he laboured for shall he restore, and shall not swallow it down: according to his substance shall the restitution be, and he shall not rejoice therein.

(Job 20:19) Because he hath oppressed and hath forsaken the poor; because he hath violently taken away an house which he builded not;

(Job 20:20) Surely he shall not feel quietness in his belly, he shall not save of that which he desired.

(Job 20:21) There shall none of his meat be left; therefore shall no man look for his goods.

(Job 20:22) In the fulness of his sufficiency he shall be in straits: every hand of the wicked shall come upon him.

(Job 20:23) When he is about to fill his belly, God shall cast the fury of his wrath upon him, and shall rain it upon him while he is eating.

(Job 20:24) He shall flee from the iron weapon, and the bow of steel shall strike him through.

(Job 20:25) It is drawn, and cometh out of the body; yea, the glittering sword cometh out of his gall: terrors are upon him.

(Job 20:26) All darkness shall be hid in his secret places: a fire not blown shall consume him; it shall go ill with him that is left in his tabernacle [tent].

(Job 20:27) The heaven shall reveal his iniquity; and the earth shall rise up against him.

(Job 20:28) The increase of his house shall depart, and his goods shall flow away in the day of his wrath.

(Job 20:29) This is the portion of a wicked man from God, and the heritage appointed unto him by God.

Job — Speech #7 

(Job 21:1) But Job answered and said,

(Job 21:2) Hear diligently [carefully] my speech, and let this be your consolations [way of comforting me].

The only comfort these friends of Job provide is by letting him talk once in a while.

(Job 21:3) Suffer [allow] me that I may speak; and after that I have spoken, mock on.

What an unedifying conversation these were having.

(Job 21:4) As for me, is my complaint to man? and if it were so, why should not my spirit be troubled [discouraged]?

The phrase "it were so" is not in the text.

Job's complaint is directed to God, and rightly so. No mere human caused his health problems.

(Job 21:5) Mark [look at] me, and be astonished, and lay your hand upon your mouth.

(Job 21:6) Even when I remember I am afraid, and trembling taketh hold on my flesh.

Job expands his thinking to the larger questions of evil in the world and the fate of those.

(Job 21:7) Wherefore [why] do the wicked live, become old, yea, are mighty in power?

Why is there evil in this world? This is the question that could not be answered by other religious systems and provoked me to become a Christian. The cheaters and liars and exploiters often thrive, usually at the expense of others who are weaker or more moral.

(Job 21:8) Their seed is [descendants are] established in their sight with them, and their offspring before their eyes.

The wicked prosper, as do their children, and so on.

(Job 21:9) Their houses are safe from fear, neither is the rod of God upon them.

The reference to rod doesn't necessarily mean punishment; it seems to refer to any kind of hardship or rulership. I mention this because some Christians think you should hit or spank your children: "spare the rod, spoil the child".

(Job 21:10) Their bull gendereth, and faileth not; their cow calveth, and casteth not her calf.

(Job 21:11) They send forth their little ones like a flock, and their children dance.

(Job 21:12) They take the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the sound of the organ.

(Job 21:13) They spend their days in wealth, and in a moment go down to the grave [sheol].

Before the time of Jesus, people at death went into one of two places in the spiritual realm: (1) Abraham's bosom for the redeemed to wait for Jesus to rescue them, and (2) and hades for the unredeemed.

(Job 21:14) Therefore they say unto God, Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways.

(Job 21:15) What is the Almighty, that we should serve him? and what profit should we have, if we pray unto him?

(Job 21:16) Lo, their good is not in their hand: the counsel of the wicked is far from me.

(Job 21:17) How oft is the candle of the wicked put out! and how oft cometh their destruction upon them! God distributeth sorrows in his anger.

(Job 21:18) They are as stubble before the wind, and as chaff that the storm carrieth away.

(Job 21:19) God layeth up his iniquity for his children: he rewardeth him, and he shall know it.

(Job 21:20) His eyes shall see his destruction, and he shall drink of the wrath of the Almighty.

(Job 21:21) For what pleasure hath he in his house after him, when the number of his months is cut off in the midst?

(Job 21:22) Shall any teach God knowledge? seeing he judgeth those that are high.

(Job 21:23) One dieth in his full strength, being wholly at ease and quiet.

(Job 21:24) His breasts are full of milk, and his bones are moistened with marrow.

(Job 21:25) And another dieth in the bitterness of his soul, and never eateth with pleasure.

(Job 21:26) They shall lie down alike in the dust, and the worms shall cover them.

(Job 21:27) Behold, I know your thoughts, and the devices which ye wrongfully imagine against me.

(Job 21:28) For ye say, Where is the house of the prince? and where are the dwelling places of the wicked?

(Job 21:29) Have ye not asked them that go by the way? and do ye not know their tokens,

(Job 21:30) That the wicked is reserved to the day of destruction? they shall be brought forth to the day of wrath.

(Job 21:31) Who shall declare his way to his face? and who shall repay him what he hath done?

(Job 21:32) Yet shall he be brought to the grave, and shall remain in the tomb.

(Job 21:33) The clods of the valley shall be sweet unto him, and every man shall draw after him, as there are innumerable before him.

(Job 21:34) How then comfort ye me in vain, seeing in your answers there remaineth falsehood?

Eliphaz — Speech #3 

(Job 22:1) Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said,

(Job 22:2) Can a man be profitable unto God, as he that is wise may be profitable unto himself?

(Job 22:3) Is it any pleasure to the Almighty, that thou art righteous? or is it gain to him, that thou makest thy ways perfect?

Actually, God enjoys great pleasure in righteous and holy people. God created us with the intention of communing with us. The view of Eliphaz is similar to the Deist view of God, that he created the world but now has no interest in it or interaction with it.

(Job 22:4) Will he reprove thee for fear of thee? will he enter with thee into judgment?

(Job 22:5) Is not thy wickedness great? and thine iniquities infinite?

(Job 22:6) For thou hast taken a pledge from thy brother for nought, and stripped the naked of their clothing.

How often do people assume they know what others do or think; this based merely from a preconceived viewpoint or philosophical structure. As an example: I was called an idol worshipper merely because I converted to Catholicism; the people never even bothered to ask me whether I really worshipped idols or not. This kind of treatment of others destroys relationships and unity among Christians.

(Job 22:7) Thou hast not given water to the weary to drink, and thou hast withholden bread from the hungry.

(Job 22:8) But as for the mighty man, he had the earth; and the honourable man dwelt in it.

(Job 22:9) Thou hast sent widows away empty, and the arms of the fatherless have been broken.

(Job 22:10) Therefore snares are round about thee, and sudden fear troubleth thee;

(Job 22:11) Or darkness, that thou canst not see; and abundance of waters cover thee.

(Job 22:12) Is not God in the height of heaven? and behold the height of the stars, how high they are!

(Job 22:13) And thou sayest, How doth God know? can he judge through the dark cloud?

(Job 22:14) Thick clouds are a covering to him, that he seeth not; and he walketh in the circuit [circle] of heaven.

Perhaps refers to the circle above (the sky; the bottom of the clouds are flat) and the circle below (the earth), both joined together by the horizon which is a circle when you are on a small hill spinning 360 degrees. Or, perhaps refers to a semi-spherical sky.

(Job 22:15) Hast thou marked the old way which wicked men have trodden?

(Job 22:16) Which were cut down out of time, whose foundation was overflown with a flood:

(Job 22:17) Which said unto God, Depart from us: and what can the Almighty do for them?

(Job 22:18) Yet he filled their houses with good things: but the counsel of the wicked is far from me.

(Job 22:19) The righteous see it, and are glad: and the innocent laugh them to scorn.

(Job 22:20) Whereas our substance is not cut down, but the remnant of them the fire consumeth.

(Job 22:21) Acquaint now thyself with him, and be at peace: thereby good shall come unto thee.

If Job would turn to God his misfortunes will vanish away. But there is no regard given for the irreversibility of the events; his children can never be returned.

(Job 22:22) Receive, I pray thee, the law from his mouth, and lay up his words in thine heart.

(Job 22:23) If thou return to the Almighty, thou shalt be built up, thou shalt put away iniquity far from thy tabernacles [tents].

(Job 22:24) Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust, and the gold of Ophir as the stones of the brooks.

(Job 22:25) Yea, the Almighty shall be thy defence, and thou shalt have plenty of silver.

(Job 22:26) For then shalt thou have thy delight in the Almighty, and shalt lift up thy face unto God.

(Job 22:27) Thou shalt make thy prayer unto him, and he shall hear thee, and thou shalt pay thy vows.

(Job 22:28) Thou shalt also decree a thing, and it shall be established unto thee: and the light shall shine upon thy ways.

(Job 22:29) When men are cast down, then thou shalt say, There is lifting up; and he shall save the humble person.

(Job 22:30) He shall deliver the island [not] of the innocent: and it is delivered by the pureness of thine hands.

Job — Speech #8 

(Job 23:1) Then Job answered and said,

(Job 23:2) Even to day is my complaint bitter: my stroke is heavier than my groaning.

(Job 23:3) Oh that I knew where I might find him! that I might come even to his seat!

(Job 23:4) I would order my cause before him, and fill my mouth with arguments.

(Job 23:5) I would know the words which he would answer me, and understand what he would say unto me.

(Job 23:6) Will he plead against me with his great power? No; but he would put strength in me.

(Job 23:7) There the righteous might dispute with him; so should I be delivered for ever from my judge.

(Job 23:8) Behold, I go forward, but he is not there; and backward, but I cannot perceive him:

(Job 23:9) On the left hand, where he doth work, but I cannot behold him: he hideth himself on the right hand, that I cannot see him:

(Job 23:10) But he knoweth the way that I take: when he hath tried me, I shall come forth as gold.

(Job 23:11) My foot hath held his steps, his way have I kept, and not declined.

(Job 23:12) Neither have I gone back from the commandment of his lips; I have esteemed the words of his mouth more than my necessary food.

(Job 23:13) But he is in one mind, and who can turn him? and what his soul desireth, even that he doeth.

(Job 23:14) For he performeth the thing that is appointed for me: and many such things are with him.

(Job 23:15) Therefore am I troubled at his presence: when I consider, I am afraid of him.

(Job 23:16) For God maketh my heart soft, and the Almighty troubleth me:

(Job 23:17) Because I was not cut off before the darkness, neither hath he covered the darkness from my face.

(Job 24:1) Why, seeing times are not hidden from the Almighty, do they that know him not see his days?

(Job 24:2) Some remove the landmarks; they violently take away flocks, and feed thereof.

(Job 24:3) They drive away the ass [donkey] of the fatherless, they take the widow's ox for a pledge.

(Job 24:4) They turn the needy out of the way: the poor of the earth hide themselves together.

(Job 24:5) Behold, as wild asses [donkeys] in the desert, go they forth to their work; rising betimes for a prey: the wilderness yieldeth food for them and for their children.

Technically a wild donkey is an ass, but I prefer to use the word "donkey" since some people may not know the proper use of these terms.

(Job 24:6) They reap every one his corn in the field: and they gather the vintage of the wicked.

(Job 24:7) They cause the naked to lodge without clothing, that they have no covering in the cold.

(Job 24:8) They are wet with the showers of the mountains, and embrace the rock for want of a shelter.

(Job 24:9) They pluck the fatherless from the breast, and take a pledge of the poor.

(Job 24:10) They cause him to go naked without clothing, and they take away the sheaf from the hungry;

(Job 24:11) Which make oil within their walls, and tread their winepresses, and suffer thirst.

(Job 24:12) Men groan from out of the city, and the soul of the wounded crieth out: yet God layeth not folly to them.

(Job 24:13) They are of those that rebel against the light; they know not the ways thereof, nor abide in the paths thereof.

(Job 24:14) The murderer rising with the light killeth the poor and needy, and in the night is as a thief.

(Job 24:15) The eye also of the adulterer waiteth for the twilight, saying, No eye shall see me: and disguiseth his face.

(Job 24:16) In the dark they dig through houses, which they had marked for themselves in the daytime: they know not the light.

(Job 24:17) For the morning is to them even as the shadow of death: if one know them, they are in the terrors of the shadow of death.

(Job 24:18) He is swift as the waters; their portion is cursed in the earth: he beholdeth not the way of the vineyards.

(Job 24:19) Drought and heat consume the snow waters: so doth the grave those which have sinned.

(Job 24:20) The womb shall forget him; the worm shall feed sweetly on him; he shall be no more remembered; and wickedness shall be broken as a tree.

(Job 24:21) He evil entreateth the barren that beareth not: and doeth not good to the widow.

(Job 24:22) He draweth also the mighty with his power: he riseth up, and no man is sure of life.

(Job 24:23) Though it be given him to be in safety, whereon he resteth; yet his eyes are upon their ways.

(Job 24:24) They are exalted for a little while, but are gone and brought low; they are taken out of the way as all other, and cut off as the tops of the ears of corn.

(Job 24:25) And if it be not so now, who will make me a liar, and make my speech nothing worth?

Bildad — Speech #3 

(Job 25:1) Then answered Bildad the Shuhite, and said,

(Job 25:2) Dominion and fear are with him, he maketh peace in his high places.

(Job 25:3) Is there any number of his armies? and upon whom doth not his light arise?

(Job 25:4) How then can man be justified with God? or how can he be clean that is born of a woman?

(Job 25:5) Behold even to the moon, and it shineth not; yea, the stars are not pure in his sight.

(Job 25:6) How much less man, that is a worm? and the son of man, which is a worm?

We should wonder what it means for a person to be a worm. It means lowly and humble, beneath other things or beings. It's not talking about fishing or dying fabric red or stepping on worms.

Job — Speech #9 

(Job 26:1) But Job answered and said,

(Job 26:2) How hast thou helped him that is without power? how savest thou the arm that hath no strength?

(Job 26:3) How hast thou counselled him that hath no wisdom? and how hast thou plentifully declared the thing as it is?

(Job 26:4) To whom hast thou uttered words? and whose spirit came from thee?

(Job 26:5) Dead things are formed from under the waters, and the inhabitants thereof.

(Job 26:6) Hell is naked before him, and destruction hath no covering.

(Job 26:7) He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.

(Job 26:8) He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds; and the cloud is not rent under them.

(Job 26:9) He holdeth back the face of his throne, and spreadeth his cloud upon it.

(Job 26:10) He hath compassed the waters with bounds [inscribed a circle on the surface of the waters], until the day and night come to an end [at the boundary].

The sun is within the firmament which rests on the edge of the earth; beyond the firmament is darkness.

Perhaps the vantage point is a small island or a boat. As you spin 360 degrees, all you see is the horizon on the water forming a circle. Beyond the horizon, far far away, never seen by humans, the firmament rises up from its foundation upon the earth.

(Job 26:11) The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at his reproof.

The "pillars of heaven" are probably the firmament, or perhaps the mountains upon which the firmament is supported. The firmament is the clear solid dome of the sky resting on a flat earth and having water above.

(Job 26:12) He divideth the sea with his power, and by his understanding he smiteth through the proud.

(Job 26:13) By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed the crooked serpent.

(Job 26:14) Lo, these are parts of his ways: but how little a portion is heard of him? but the thunder of his power who can understand?

(Job 27:1) Moreover Job continued his parable, and said,

(Job 27:2) As God liveth, who hath taken away my judgment; and the Almighty, who hath vexed my soul;

(Job 27:3) All the while my breath is in me, and the spirit of God is in my nostrils;

(Job 27:4) My lips shall not speak wickedness, nor my tongue utter deceit.

(Job 27:5) God forbid that I should justify you: till I die I will not remove mine integrity from me.

(Job 27:6) My righteousness I hold fast, and will not let it go: my heart shall not reproach me so long as I live.

(Job 27:7) Let mine enemy be as the wicked, and he that riseth up against me as the unrighteous.

(Job 27:8) For what is the hope of the hypocrite, though he hath gained, when God taketh away his soul?

(Job 27:9) Will God hear his cry when trouble cometh upon him?

(Job 27:10) Will he delight himself in the Almighty? will he always call upon God?

(Job 27:11) I will teach you by the hand of God: that which is with the Almighty will I not conceal.

(Job 27:12) Behold, all ye yourselves have seen it; why then are ye thus altogether vain?

(Job 27:13) This is the portion of a wicked man with God, and the heritage of oppressors, which they shall receive of the Almighty.

(Job 27:14) If his children be multiplied, it is for the sword: and his offspring shall not be satisfied with bread.

(Job 27:15) Those that remain of him shall be buried in death: and his widows shall not weep.

(Job 27:16) Though he heap up silver as the dust, and prepare raiment as the clay;

(Job 27:17) He may prepare it, but the just shall put it on, and the innocent shall divide the silver.

(Job 27:18) He buildeth his house as a moth, and as a booth that the keeper maketh.

(Job 27:19) The rich man shall lie down, but he shall not be gathered: he openeth his eyes, and he is not.

(Job 27:20) Terrors take hold on him as waters, a tempest stealeth him away in the night.

(Job 27:21) The east wind carrieth him away, and he departeth: and as a storm hurleth him out of his place.

(Job 27:22) For God shall cast upon him, and not spare: he would fain flee out of his hand.

(Job 27:23) Men shall clap their hands at him, and shall hiss him out of his place.

(Job 28:1) Surely there is a vein for the silver, and a place for gold where they fine it.

(Job 28:2) Iron is taken out of the earth, and brass is molten out of the stone.

(Job 28:3) He setteth an end to darkness, and searcheth out all perfection: the stones of darkness, and the shadow of death.

(Job 28:4) The flood breaketh out from the inhabitant; even the waters forgotten of the foot: they are dried up, they are gone away from men.

(Job 28:5) As for the earth, out of it cometh bread: and under it is turned up as it were fire.

(Job 28:6) The stones of it are the place of sapphires: and it hath dust of gold.

(Job 28:7) There is a path which no fowl knoweth, and which the vulture's eye hath not seen:

(Job 28:8) The lion's whelps have not trodden it, nor the fierce lion passed by it.

(Job 28:9) He putteth forth his hand upon the rock; he overturneth the mountains by the roots.

(Job 28:10) He cutteth out rivers among the rocks; and his eye seeth every precious thing.

(Job 28:11) He bindeth the floods from overflowing; and the thing that is hid bringeth he forth to light.

(Job 28:12) But where shall wisdom be found? and where is the place of understanding?

(Job 28:13) Man knoweth not the price thereof; neither is it found in the land of the living.

(Job 28:14) The depth saith, It is not in me: and the sea saith, It is not with me.

(Job 28:15) It cannot be gotten for gold, neither shall silver be weighed for the price thereof.

(Job 28:16) It cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir, with the precious onyx, or the sapphire.

(Job 28:17) The gold and the crystal cannot equal it: and the exchange of it shall not be for jewels of fine gold.

(Job 28:18) No mention shall be made of coral, or of pearls: for the price of wisdom is above rubies.

(Job 28:19) The topaz of Ethiopia shall not equal it, neither shall it be valued with pure gold.

(Job 28:20) Whence then cometh wisdom? and where is the place of understanding?

(Job 28:21) Seeing it is hid from the eyes of all living, and kept close from the fowls of the air.

(Job 28:22) Destruction and death say, We have heard the fame thereof with our ears.

(Job 28:23) God understandeth the way thereof, and he knoweth the place thereof.

(Job 28:24) For he looketh to the ends of the earth, and seeth under the whole heaven;

(Job 28:25) To make the weight for the winds; and he weigheth the waters by measure.

(Job 28:26) When he made a decree for the rain, and a way for the lightning of the thunder:

(Job 28:27) Then did he see it, and declare it; he prepared it, yea, and searched it out.

(Job 28:28) And unto man he said, Behold, the fear of the LORD, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding.

(Job 29:1) Moreover Job continued his parable, and said,

(Job 29:2) Oh that I were as in months past, as in the days when God preserved me;

(Job 29:3) When his candle shined upon my head, and when by his light I walked through darkness;

(Job 29:4) As I was in the days of my youth, when the secret of God was upon my tabernacle;

(Job 29:5) When the Almighty was yet with me, when my children were about me;

(Job 29:6) When I washed my steps with butter, and the rock poured me out rivers of oil;

(Job 29:7) When I went out to the gate through the city, when I prepared my seat in the street!

(Job 29:8) The young men saw me, and hid themselves: and the aged arose, and stood up.

(Job 29:9) The princes refrained talking, and laid their hand on their mouth.

(Job 29:10) The nobles held their peace, and their tongue cleaved to the roof of their mouth.

(Job 29:11) When the ear heard me, then it blessed me; and when the eye saw me, it gave witness to me:

(Job 29:12) Because I delivered the poor that cried, and the fatherless, and him that had none to help him.

(Job 29:13) The blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon me: and I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy.

(Job 29:14) I put on righteousness, and it clothed me: my judgment was as a robe and a diadem.

(Job 29:15) I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the lame.

(Job 29:16) I was a father to the poor: and the cause which I knew not I searched out.

(Job 29:17) And I brake the jaws of the wicked, and plucked the spoil out of his teeth.

(Job 29:18) Then I said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the sand.

(Job 29:19) My root was spread out by the waters, and the dew lay all night upon my branch.

(Job 29:20) My glory was fresh in me, and my bow was renewed in my hand.

(Job 29:21) Unto me men gave ear, and waited, and kept silence at my counsel.

(Job 29:22) After my words they spake not again; and my speech dropped upon them.

(Job 29:23) And they waited for me as for the rain; and they opened their mouth wide as for the latter rain.

(Job 29:24) If I laughed on them, they believed it not; and the light of my countenance they cast not down.

(Job 29:25) I chose out their way, and sat chief, and dwelt as a king in the army, as one that comforteth the mourners.

(Job 30:1) But now they that are younger than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have disdained to have set with the dogs of my flock.

(Job 30:2) Yea, whereto might the strength of their hands profit me, in whom old age was perished?

(Job 30:3) For want and famine they were solitary; fleeing into the wilderness in former time desolate and waste.

(Job 30:4) Who cut up mallows by the bushes, and juniper roots for their meat.

(Job 30:5) They were driven forth from among men, (they cried after them as after a thief;)

(Job 30:6) To dwell in the cliffs of the valleys, in caves of the earth, and in the rocks.

(Job 30:7) Among the bushes they brayed; under the nettles they were gathered together.

(Job 30:8) They were children of fools, yea, children of base men: they were viler than the earth.

(Job 30:9) And now am I their song, yea, I am their byword.

(Job 30:10) They abhor me, they flee far from me, and spare not to spit in my face.

(Job 30:11) Because he hath loosed my cord, and afflicted me, they have also let loose the bridle before me.

(Job 30:12) Upon my right hand rise the youth; they push away my feet, and they raise up against me the ways of their destruction.

(Job 30:13) They mar my path, they set forward my calamity, they have no helper.

(Job 30:14) They came upon me as a wide breaking in of waters: in the desolation they rolled themselves upon me.

(Job 30:15) Terrors are turned upon me: they pursue my soul as the wind: and my welfare passeth away as a cloud.

(Job 30:16) And now my soul is poured out upon me; the days of affliction have taken hold upon me.

(Job 30:17) My bones are pierced in me in the night season: and my sinews take no rest.

(Job 30:18) By the great force of my disease is my garment changed: it bindeth me about as the collar of my coat.

(Job 30:19) He hath cast me into the mire, and I am become like dust and ashes.

(Job 30:20) I cry unto thee, and thou dost not hear me: I stand up, and thou regardest me not.

(Job 30:21) Thou art become cruel to me: with thy strong hand thou opposest thyself against me.

(Job 30:22) Thou liftest me up to the wind; thou causest me to ride upon it, and dissolvest my substance.

(Job 30:23) For I know that thou wilt bring me to death, and to the house appointed for all living.

(Job 30:24) Howbeit he will not stretch out his hand to the grave, though they cry in his destruction.

(Job 30:25) Did not I weep for him that was in trouble? was not my soul grieved for the poor?

(Job 30:26) When I looked for good, then evil came unto me: and when I waited for light, there came darkness.

(Job 30:27) My bowels boiled, and rested not: the days of affliction prevented me.

(Job 30:28) I went mourning without the sun: I stood up, and I cried in the congregation.

(Job 30:29) I am a brother to dragons, and a companion to owls.

(Job 30:30) My skin is black upon me, and my bones are burned with heat.

(Job 30:31) My harp also is turned to mourning, and my organ into the voice of them that weep.

(Job 31:1) I made a covenant with mine eyes; why then should I think [look] upon a maid [young woman]?

This is what they should be teaching children and young adults in school rather than encouraging them to have full freedom of expression, to control their desires, to only relate to one another in a proper manner.

(Job 31:2) For what portion of God is there from above? and what inheritance of the Almighty from on high?

(Job 31:3) Is not destruction to the wicked? and a strange punishment to the workers of iniquity?

(Job 31:4) Doth not he see my ways, and count all my steps?

(Job 31:5) If I have walked with vanity, or if my foot hath hasted to deceit;

(Job 31:6) Let me be weighed in an even balance that God may know mine integrity.

(Job 31:7) If my step hath turned out of the way, and mine heart walked after mine eyes, and if any blot hath cleaved to mine hands;

(Job 31:8) Then let me sow, and let another eat; yea, let my offspring be rooted out.

(Job 31:9) If mine heart have been deceived [enticed] by a woman, or if I have laid wait [lurked] at my neighbour's door;

Hanging around waiting for an opportunity for mischief. We should, rather, avoid such things. And, they should be teaching this in school to our youngsters. Moral purity doesn't just happen on it own, by itself, unattended. It takes knowledge, commitment, and effort — a continual act of will with focused purpose.

(Job 31:10) Then let my wife grind unto [for] another, and let others bow [kneel] down upon [over] her.

The men of that day had no respect whatsoever for women. Job says that if he had adultery with another man's wife, then his punishment should be that his own wife becomes someone else's slave to use as they see fit.

(Job 31:11) For this is an heinous crime; yea, it is an iniquity to be punished by the judges.

Adultery is such a bad moral crime that if Job were to have done it, his wife should be punished for it. Weird.

(Job 31:12) For it is a fire that consumeth to destruction, and would root out all mine increase.

(Job 31:13) If I did despise the cause of my manservant or of my maidservant, when they contended with me;

(Job 31:14) What then shall I do when God riseth up? and when he visiteth, what shall I answer him?

(Job 31:15) Did not he that made me in the womb make him? and did not one fashion us in the womb?

(Job 31:16) If I have withheld the poor from their desire, or have caused the eyes of the widow to fail;

(Job 31:17) Or have eaten my morsel myself alone, and the fatherless hath not eaten thereof;

(Job 31:18) (For from my youth he was brought up with me, as with a father, and I have guided her from my mother's womb;)

(Job 31:19) If I have seen any perish for want of clothing, or any poor without covering;

(Job 31:20) If his loins have not blessed me, and if he were not warmed with the fleece of my sheep;

(Job 31:21) If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, when I saw my help in the gate:

(Job 31:22) Then let mine arm fall from my shoulder blade, and mine arm be broken from the bone.

(Job 31:23) For destruction from God was a terror to me, and by reason of his highness I could not endure.

(Job 31:24) If I have made gold my hope, or have said to the fine gold, Thou art my confidence;

(Job 31:25) If I rejoiced because my wealth was great, and because mine hand had gotten much;

(Job 31:26) If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness;

(Job 31:27) And my heart hath been secretly enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand:

(Job 31:28) This also were an iniquity to be punished by the judge: for I should have denied the God that is above.

(Job 31:29) If I rejoiced at the destruction of him that hated me, or lifted up myself when evil found him:

(Job 31:30) Neither have I suffered my mouth to sin by wishing a curse to his soul.

(Job 31:31) If the men of my tabernacle said not, Oh that we had of his flesh! we cannot be satisfied.

(Job 31:32) The stranger did not lodge in the street: but I opened my doors to the traveller.

(Job 31:33) If I covered my transgressions as Adam, by hiding mine iniquity in my bosom:

(Job 31:34) Did I fear a great multitude, or did the contempt of families terrify me, that I kept silence, and went not out of the door?

(Job 31:35) Oh that one would hear me! behold, my desire is, that the Almighty would answer me, and that mine adversary had written a book.

(Job 31:36) Surely I would take it upon my shoulder, and bind it as a crown to me.

(Job 31:37) I would declare unto him the number of my steps; as a prince would I go near unto him.

(Job 31:38) If my land cry against me, or that the furrows likewise thereof complain;

(Job 31:39) If I have eaten the fruits thereof without money, or have caused the owners thereof to lose their life:

(Job 31:40) Let thistles grow instead of wheat, and cockle instead of barley. The words of Job are ended.

The Debate Ends

(Job 32:1) So these three men ceased to answer Job, because he was righteous in his own eyes.

Elihu speaks

(Job 32:2) Then was kindled the wrath of Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite, of the kindred of Ram: against Job was his wrath kindled, because he justified himself rather than God.

I wonder if Elihu was not sometimes guilty of the same thing he accused Job of, of insisting he was innocent when falsely charged with guilt.

(Job 32:3) Also against his three friends was his wrath kindled, because they had found no answer, and yet had condemned Job.

Elihu thinks his answer will be the final word on the matter. But God ignores Elihu altogether.

(Job 32:4) Now Elihu had waited till Job had spoken, because they were elder than he.

(Job 32:5) When Elihu saw that there was no answer in the mouth of these three men, then his wrath was kindled.

(Job 32:6) And Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite answered and said, I am young, and ye are very old; wherefore I was afraid, and durst not shew you mine opinion.

(Job 32:7) I said, Days should speak, and multitude of years should teach wisdom.

(Job 32:8) But there is a spirit in man: and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding.

(Job 32:9) Great men are not always wise: neither do the aged understand judgment.

(Job 32:10) Therefore I said, Hearken to me; I also will shew mine opinion.

(Job 32:11) Behold, I waited for your words; I gave ear to your reasons, whilst ye searched out what to say.

(Job 32:12) Yea, I attended unto you, and, behold, there was none of you that convinced Job, or that answered his words:

(Job 32:13) Lest ye should say, We have found out wisdom: God thrusteth him down, not man.

(Job 32:14) Now he hath not directed his words against me: neither will I answer him with your speeches.

(Job 32:15) They were amazed, they answered no more: they left off speaking.

(Job 32:16) When I had waited, (for they spake not, but stood still, and answered no more;)

(Job 32:17) I said, I will answer also my part, I also will shew mine opinion.

(Job 32:18) For I am full of matter, the spirit within me constraineth me.

(Job 32:19) Behold, my belly is as wine which hath no vent; it is ready to burst like new bottles.

(Job 32:20) I will speak, that I may be refreshed: I will open my lips and answer.

(Job 32:21) Let me not, I pray you, accept any man's person, neither let me give flattering titles unto man.

(Job 32:22) For I know not to give flattering titles; in so doing my maker would soon take me away.

(Job 33:1) Wherefore, Job, I pray thee, hear my speeches, and hearken to all my words.

(Job 33:2) Behold, now I have opened my mouth, my tongue hath spoken in my mouth.

(Job 33:3) My words shall be of the uprightness of my heart: and my lips shall utter knowledge clearly.

(Job 33:4) The spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.

(Job 33:5) If thou canst answer me, set thy words in order before me, stand up.

(Job 33:6) Behold, I am according to thy wish in God's stead: I also am formed out of the clay.

(Job 33:7) Behold, my terror shall not make thee afraid, neither shall my hand be heavy upon thee.

(Job 33:8) Surely thou hast spoken in mine hearing, and I have heard the voice of thy words, saying,

Elihu finally begins his argument.

(Job 33:9) I am clean without transgression, I am innocent; neither is there iniquity in me.

These are Elihu's summary of Job's words — that Job insisted he was innocent of any wrongdoing.

(Job 33:10) Behold, he findeth occasions against me, he counteth me for his enemy,

(Job 33:11) He putteth my feet in the stocks, he marketh all my paths.

Yet is spite of Job's innocence, God brought hardship against him.

(Job 33:12) Behold, in this thou art not just [right]: I will answer thee, that God is greater than man.

Elihu will now give his answer.

Elihu misinterprets Job's complaint and accuses Job as saying that he thinks he is greater than God; that his innocence should dictate how God treats him.

(Job 33:13) Why dost thou strive against him? for he giveth not account of any of his matters.

It is a waste of effort and energy to struggle against God because he keeps his purposes secret from us even when we ask him what he is doing.

(Job 33:14) For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not.

But God does sometimes speak to us; we just don't notice it.

(Job 33:15) In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed;

An example of when God does speak to us is in our dreams and visions while sleeping.

(Job 33:16) Then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instruction,

In those dreams and visions God instructs us and confirms his instruction to make it effective. Some translations say he terrifies them with warnings.

In this verse Elihu contradicts himself. He says that when God speaks to us we don't notice it but then admits that these communications from God are effective in changing our behavior.

(Job 33:17) That he may withdraw man from his purpose, and hide pride from man.

God wishes us to not act from pride and he warns us in dreams and visions so we will change our ways.

(Job 33:18) He keepeth back his soul from the pit, and his life from perishing by the sword.

It is pride that make us do things that get us killed such a going into battle. I suppose there are also occasions in which God punishes us for being prideful by killing us or having us lose battles, by withdrawing his grace from us.

(Job 33:19) He is chastened also with pain upon his bed, and the multitude of his bones with strong pain:

Another way that God communicates to us is by inflicting hardship, illness, and pain as a consequence of our pride and sin.

Elihu's understanding is that we cause our own hardship, that God removes his grace from us when we sin. This implies that someone without sin would have no hardship. Even though Job is righteous, Job's hardship blinds Elihu from seeing Job's righteousness and that there was a different reason God brought hardship upon him. The word-faith, health-wealth teachers have the same blindness as Elihu and so they must find ways to justify calling Job a sinner.

(Job 33:20) So that his life abhorreth bread, and his soul dainty meat.

(Job 33:21) His flesh is consumed away, that it cannot be seen; and his bones that were not seen stick out.

(Job 33:22) Yea, his soul draweth near unto the grave, and his life to the destroyers.

(Job 33:23) If there be a messenger with him, an interpreter, one among a thousand, to shew unto man his uprightness:

(Job 33:24) Then he is gracious unto him, and saith, Deliver him from going down to the pit: I have found a ransom.

(Job 33:25) His flesh shall be fresher than a child's: he shall return to the days of his youth:

(Job 33:26) He shall pray unto God, and he will be favourable unto him: and he shall see his face with joy: for he will render unto man his righteousness.

(Job 33:27) He looketh upon men, and if any say, I have sinned, and perverted that which was right, and it profited me not;

(Job 33:28) He will deliver his soul from going into the pit, and his life shall see the light.

(Job 33:29) Lo, all these things worketh God oftentimes with man,

(Job 33:30) To bring back his soul from the pit, to be enlightened with the light of the living.

(Job 33:31) Mark well, O Job, hearken unto me: hold thy peace, and I will speak.

(Job 33:32) If thou hast anything to say, answer me: speak, for I desire to justify thee.

(Job 33:33) If not, hearken unto me: hold thy peace, and I shall teach thee wisdom.

(Job 34:1) Furthermore Elihu answered and said,

(Job 34:2) Hear my words, O ye wise men; and give ear unto me, ye that have knowledge.

(Job 34:3) For the ear trieth words, as the mouth tasteth meat.

(Job 34:4) Let us choose to us judgment: let us know among ourselves what is good.

(Job 34:5) For Job hath said, I am righteous: and God hath taken away my judgment.

(Job 34:6) Should I lie against my right? my wound is incurable without transgression.

(Job 34:7) What man is like Job, who drinketh up scorning like water?

(Job 34:8) Which goeth in company with the workers of iniquity, and walketh with wicked men.

(Job 34:9) For he hath said, It profiteth a man nothing that he should delight himself with God.

(Job 34:10) Therefore hearken unto me ye men of understanding: far be it from God, that he should do wickedness; and from the Almighty, that he should commit iniquity.

(Job 34:11) For the work of a man shall he render unto him, and cause every man to find according to his ways.

(Job 34:12) Yea, surely God will not do wickedly, neither will the Almighty pervert judgment.

(Job 34:13) Who hath given him a charge over the earth? or who hath disposed the whole world?

(Job 34:14) If he set his heart upon man, if he gather unto himself his spirit and his breath;

(Job 34:15) All flesh shall perish together, and man shall turn again unto dust.

(Job 34:16) If now thou hast understanding, hear this: hearken to the voice of my words.

(Job 34:17) Shall even he that hateth right govern? and wilt thou condemn him that is most just?

(Job 34:18) Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art wicked? and to princes, Ye are ungodly?

(Job 34:19) How much less to him that accepteth not the persons of princes, nor regardeth the rich more than the poor? for they all are the work of his hands.

(Job 34:20) In a moment shall they die, and the people shall be troubled at midnight, and pass away: and the mighty shall be taken away without hand.

(Job 34:21) For his eyes are upon the ways of man, and he seeth all his goings.

(Job 34:22) There is no darkness, nor shadow of death, where the workers of iniquity may hide themselves.

(Job 34:23) For he will not lay upon man more than right; that he should enter into judgment with God.

(Job 34:24) He shall break in pieces mighty men without number, and set others in their stead.

(Job 34:25) Therefore he knoweth their works, and he overturneth them in the night, so that they are destroyed.

(Job 34:26) He striketh them as wicked men in the open sight of others;

(Job 34:27) Because they turned back from him, and would not consider any of his ways:

(Job 34:28) So that they cause the cry of the poor to come unto him, and he heareth the cry of the afflicted.

(Job 34:29) When he giveth quietness, who then can make trouble? and when he hideth his face, who then can behold him? whether it be done against a nation, or against a man only:

(Job 34:30) That the hypocrite reign not, lest the people be ensnared.

(Job 34:31) Surely it is meet to be said unto God, I have borne chastisement, I will not offend any more:

(Job 34:32) That which I see not teach thou me: if I have done iniquity, I will do no more.

(Job 34:33) Should it be according to thy mind? he will recompense it, whether thou refuse, or whether thou choose; and not I: therefore speak what thou knowest.

(Job 34:34) Let men of understanding tell me, and let a wise man hearken unto me.

(Job 34:35) Job hath spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom.

(Job 34:36) My desire is that Job may be tried [tested] unto the end [limit] because of his answers for [like those of] wicked men.

Elihu thinks Job should be tested to the utmost. I wonder if he believes torture is okay?

(Job 34:37) For he addeth rebellion unto his sin, he clappeth his hands among us, and multiplieth his words against God.

(Job 35:1) Elihu spake moreover, and said,

(Job 35:2) Thinkest thou this to be right, that thou saidst, My righteousness is more than God's?

(Job 35:3) For thou saidst, What advantage will it be unto thee? and, What profit shall I have, if I be cleansed from my sin?

(Job 35:4) I will answer thee, and thy companions with thee.

(Job 35:5) Look unto the heavens, and see; and behold the clouds which are higher than thou.

(Job 35:6) If thou sinnest, what doest thou against him? or if thy transgressions be multiplied, what doest thou unto him?

(Job 35:7) If thou be righteous, what givest thou him? or what receiveth he of thine hand?

(Job 35:8) Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou art; and thy righteousness may profit the son of man.

(Job 35:9) By reason of the multitude of oppressions they make the oppressed to cry: they cry out by reason of the arm of the mighty.

(Job 35:10) But none saith, Where is God my maker, who giveth songs in the night;

(Job 35:11) Who teacheth us more than the beasts of the earth, and maketh us wiser than the fowls of heaven?

(Job 35:12) There they cry, but none giveth answer, because of the pride of evil men.

(Job 35:13) Surely God will not hear vanity, neither will the Almighty regard it.

(Job 35:14) Although thou sayest thou shalt not see him, yet judgment is before him; therefore trust thou in him.

(Job 35:15) But now, because it is not so, he hath visited in his anger; yet he knoweth it not in great extremity:

(Job 35:16) Therefore doth Job open his mouth in vain; he multiplieth words without knowledge.

(Job 36:1) Elihu also proceeded, and said,

(Job 36:2) Suffer me a little, and I will shew thee that I have yet to speak on God's behalf.

(Job 36:3) I will fetch my knowledge from afar, and will ascribe righteousness to my Maker.

(Job 36:4) For truly my words shall not be false: he that is perfect in knowledge is with thee.

(Job 36:5) Behold, God is mighty, and despiseth not any: he is mighty in strength and wisdom.

(Job 36:6) He preserveth not the life of the wicked: but giveth right to the poor.

(Job 36:7) He withdraweth not his eyes from the righteous: but with kings are they on the throne; yea, he doth establish them for ever, and they are exalted.

(Job 36:8) And if they be bound in fetters, and be holden in cords of affliction;

(Job 36:9) Then he sheweth them their work, and their transgressions that they have exceeded.

(Job 36:10) He openeth also their ear to discipline, and commandeth that they return from iniquity.

(Job 36:11) If they obey and serve him, they shall spend their days in prosperity, and their years in pleasures.

(Job 36:12) But if they obey not, they shall perish by the sword, and they shall die without knowledge.

(Job 36:13) But the hypocrites in heart heap up wrath: they cry not when he bindeth them.

(Job 36:14) They die in youth, and their life is among the unclean.

(Job 36:15) He delivereth the poor in his affliction, and openeth their ears in oppression.

(Job 36:16) Even so would he have removed thee out of the strait into a broad place, where there is no straitness; and that which should be set on thy table should be full of fatness.

(Job 36:17) But thou hast fulfilled the judgment of the wicked: judgment and justice take hold on thee.

(Job 36:18) Because there is wrath, beware lest he take thee away with his stroke: then a great ransom cannot deliver thee.

(Job 36:19) Will he esteem thy riches? no, not gold, nor all the forces of strength.

(Job 36:20) Desire not the night, when people are cut off in their place.

(Job 36:21) Take heed, regard not iniquity: for this hast thou chosen rather than affliction.

(Job 36:22) Behold, God exalteth by his power: who teacheth like him?

(Job 36:23) Who hath enjoined him his way? or who can say, Thou hast wrought iniquity?

(Job 36:24) Remember that thou magnify his work, which men behold.

(Job 36:25) Every man may see it; man may behold it afar off.

(Job 36:26) Behold, God is great, and we know him not, neither can the number of his years be searched out.

(Job 36:27) For he maketh small the drops of water: they pour down rain according to the vapour thereof:

(Job 36:28) Which the clouds do drop and distil upon man abundantly.

(Job 36:29) Also can any understand the spreadings of the clouds, or the noise of his tabernacle?

(Job 36:30) Behold, he spreadeth his light upon it, and covereth the bottom of the sea.

(Job 36:31) For by them judgeth he the people; he giveth meat in abundance.

(Job 36:32) With clouds he covereth the light; and commandeth it not to shine by the cloud that cometh betwixt.

(Job 36:33) The noise thereof sheweth concerning it, the cattle also concerning the vapour.

(Job 37:1) At this also my heart trembleth, and is moved out of his place.

(Job 37:2) Hear attentively the noise of his voice, and the sound that goeth out of his mouth.

(Job 37:3) He directeth it under the whole heaven, and his lightning unto the ends of the earth.

(Job 37:4) After it a voice roareth: he thundereth with the voice of his excellency; and he will not stay them when his voice is heard.

(Job 37:5) God thundereth marvellously with his voice; great things doeth he, which we cannot comprehend.

(Job 37:6) For he saith to the snow, Be thou on the earth; likewise to the small rain, and to the great rain of his strength.

(Job 37:7) He sealeth up the hand of every man; that all men may know his work.

(Job 37:8) Then the beasts go into dens, and remain in their places.

(Job 37:9) Out of the south cometh the whirlwind: and cold out of the north.

(Job 37:10) By the breath of God frost is given: and the breadth of the waters is straitened.

(Job 37:11) Also by watering he wearieth the thick cloud: he scattereth his bright cloud:

(Job 37:12) And it is turned round about by his counsels: that they may do whatsoever he commandeth them upon the face of the world in the earth.

(Job 37:13) He causeth it to come, whether for correction, or for his land, or for mercy.

(Job 37:14) Hearken unto this, O Job: stand still, and consider the wondrous works of God.

(Job 37:15) Dost thou know when God disposed them, and caused the light of his cloud to shine?

(Job 37:16) Dost thou know the balancings of the clouds, the wondrous works of him which is perfect in knowledge?

(Job 37:17) How thy garments are warm, when he quieteth the earth by the south wind?

(Job 37:18) Hast thou with him spread out the sky, which is strong, and as a molten looking glass [mirror]?

When you look up, the sky looks flat like a mirror; as clouds float by they are always the same distance away (if you don't look close to the horizon). The sun, moon, and stars always look the same distance away even at the horizon (the mirror image doesn't work so well at the horizon).

Apparently they had no experience with man-made solid mirrors; the best they could do was melted bronze. Of course, still water can be reflective and they surely knew of this.

(Job 37:19) Teach us what we shall say unto him; for we cannot order our speech by reason of darkness.

(Job 37:20) Shall it be told him that I speak? if a man speak, surely he shall be swallowed up.

(Job 37:21) And now men see not the bright light which is in the clouds: but the wind passeth, and cleanseth them.

(Job 37:22) Fair weather cometh out of the north: with God is terrible majesty.

(Job 37:23) Touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out: he is excellent in power, and in judgment, and in plenty of justice: he will not afflict.

(Job 37:24) Men do therefore fear him: he respecteth not any that are wise of heart.

God speaks

(Job 38:1) Then the LORD answered Job out of the whirlwind, and said,

Apparently a fierce storm came upon them, perhaps a thundershower proceeded by strong wind.

Presumably they all heard God speak.

(Job 38:2) Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without knowledge?

Job's words are without knowledge yet God considers that Job spoke accurately about God.

(Job 38:3) Gird up now thy loins like a man; for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me.

(Job 38:4) Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.

The earth doesn't have foundations in the way a building does, neither does it sit upon something secure and firm. But underneath the ground that humans spend their live upon, there is miles of rock — a foundation.

(Job 38:5) Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it?

Measuring buildings or other objects with a line or rod is a common motif in the Bible.

(Job 38:6) Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof;

(Job 38:7) When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

The angels were present when God created the universe and the earth. God's creative activities are a cause for joy and worship.

(Job 38:8) Or who shut up the sea with doors, when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the womb?

Even though the water of the ocean is fluid, it mysteriously remains within its container.

(Job 38:9) When I made the cloud the garment thereof, and thick darkness a swaddlingband for it,

Referring to the early days of the earth when it had a thick permanent cloud cover.

(Job 38:10) And brake up for it my decreed place, and set bars and doors,

(Job 38:11) And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?

(Job 38:12) Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days; and caused the dayspring [dawn] to know his place;

It must have seemed rather miraculous and unexplainable that each night the sun went down on the west, then in the morning came up from the east.

(Job 38:13) That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, that the wicked might be shaken out of it?

I think the image is that since God somehow transports the sun to the opposite side of the earth during the night, that, on judgment day, he can also tilt the earth to shake it so that the wicked fall off.

(Job 38:14) It is turned as clay to the seal; and they stand as a garment.

The sun "rolls over" the sky as if it were a cylinder "rolling over" the earth; people are fixed in place on the earth as the sun "rolls over" them.

(Job 38:15) And from the wicked their light is withholden, and the high arm shall be broken.

(Job 38:16) Hast thou entered into the springs of the sea? or hast thou walked in the search of the depth?

The source of the ocean waters was completely unknown to humans until recently. (Even young-earth creationists believing in the water vapor canopy are confused about it.)

Humans only recently began to explore under the oceans.

(Job 38:17) Have the gates of death been opened unto thee? or hast thou seen the doors of the shadow of death?

(Job 38:18) Hast thou perceived the breadth of the earth? declare if thou knowest it all.

Ancient humans had no idea of the size of the earth nor that is was a sphere floating in space.

(Job 38:19) Where is the way [to] where light dwelleth? and as for darkness, where is the place thereof,

They had no understanding about the nature of light or that darkness was merely the absence of light. Notice that God must speak to people in concepts familiar to them; he has to translate ideas into a form they can comprehend. Thus, God's divine revelations to humans are constrained by the workings of the human mind, of culture, and of current scientific and philosophical understandings. Thus, God worked through history to create a chosen nation to teach the human race about God's true nature and of man's predicament.

(Job 38:20) That thou shouldest take it to the bound [territory] thereof, and that thou shouldest know the paths to the house thereof?

Still referring to the source of light and of darkness.

(Job 38:21) Knowest thou it, because thou wast then born? or because the number of thy days is great?

The human lifespan is very brief compared to the age of the universe and the earth.

(Job 38:22) Hast thou entered into the treasures [storehouses] of the snow? or hast thou seen the treasures [storehouses] of the hail,

God is listing all the various natural phenomena.

(Job 38:23) Which I have reserved against the time of trouble, against the day of battle and war?

There are many passages in the Bible about hail during God's judgment. The effects of a severe hail storm can be devastating.

(Job 38:24) By what way is the light parted, which scattereth the east wind upon the earth?

(Job 38:25) Who hath divided a watercourse for the overflowing of waters, or a way for the lightning of thunder;

Referring to a flash flood during a severe thunderstorm.

(Job 38:26) To cause it to rain on the earth, where no man is; on the wilderness, wherein there is no man;

(Job 38:27) To satisfy the desolate and waste ground; and to cause the bud of the tender herb to spring forth?

(Job 38:28) Hath the rain a father? or who hath begotten the drops of dew?

(Job 38:29) Out of whose womb came the ice? and the hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?

These natural phenomena are outside of human control and influence.

(Job 38:30) The waters are hid as with a stone, and the face of the deep is frozen.

Probably referring to putting a stone over a spring and of frozen water in the winter.

(Job 38:31) Canst thou bind the sweet influences [beauty] of Pleiades, or loose the bands [belt] of Orion?

This does not refer to astrology. Without strong light at night from modern lighting systems, the stars and moon would have a major impact on early humans. They named them and formed shapes of various objects from them. Only when you begin to look to them as prognosticators of the future or of having a life force do you enter the forbidden realms of astrology.

(Job 38:32) Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons?

Other stars and constellations. Certain stars and constellations are visible only during certain times of the year, during certain seasons. They would be associated with the life patterns at the corresponding time of year such as planting, harvesting, etc.

(Job 38:33) Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven? canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth?

Certainly the sun affects conditions on the earth. Perhaps they noticed that the moon in some way controlled the tides. The stars and planets have no noticable effect on conditions on earth except that they are visible as tiny dots of light. Job has no control or power of any of this.

(Job 38:34) Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds, that abundance of waters may cover thee?

Job can't make it rain.

(Job 38:35) Canst thou send lightnings, that they may go, and say unto thee, Here we are?

(Job 38:36) Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts? or who hath given understanding to the heart?

The inward parts and the heart are aspects of the soul; only the soul is living.

(Job 38:37) Who can number the clouds in wisdom? or who can stay the bottles of heaven,

(Job 38:38) When the dust groweth into hardness, and the clods cleave fast together?

(Job 38:39) Wilt thou hunt the prey for the lion? or fill the appetite of the young lions,

(Job 38:40) When they couch in their dens, and abide in the covert to lie in wait?

(Job 38:41) Who provideth for the raven his food? when his young ones cry unto God, they wander for lack of meat.

(Job 39:1) Knowest thou the time when the wild goats of the rock bring forth? or canst thou mark when the hinds do calve?

(Job 39:2) Canst thou number the months that they fulfil? or knowest thou the time when they bring forth?

(Job 39:3) They bow themselves, they bring forth their young ones, they cast out their sorrows.

(Job 39:4) Their young ones are in good liking, they grow up with corn; they go forth, and return not unto them.

(Job 39:5) Who hath sent out the wild ass [donkey] free? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass [donkey]?

Technically a wild donkey is an ass, but I prefer to use the word "donkey" since some people may not know the proper use of these terms.

(Job 39:6) Whose house I have made the wilderness, and the barren land his dwellings.

(Job 39:7) He scorneth the multitude of the city, neither regardeth he the crying of the driver.

(Job 39:8) The range of the mountains is his pasture, and he searcheth after every green thing.

(Job 39:9) Will the unicorn [wild ox] be willing to serve thee, or abide by thy crib?

(Job 39:10) Canst thou bind the unicorn [wild ox] with his band in the furrow? or will he harrow the valleys after thee?

They could not domesticate this animal as they did sheep and later cattle.

(Job 39:11) Wilt thou trust him, because his strength is great? or wilt thou leave thy labour to him?

(Job 39:12) Wilt thou believe him, that he will bring home thy seed, and gather it into thy barn?

(Job 39:13) Gavest thou the goodly wings unto the peacocks? or wings and feathers unto the ostrich?

(Job 39:14) Which leaveth her eggs in the earth, and warmeth them in dust,

(Job 39:15) And forgetteth that the foot may crush them, or that the wild beast may break them.

(Job 39:16) She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers: her labour is in vain without fear;

(Job 39:17) Because God hath deprived her of wisdom, neither hath he imparted to her understanding.

These birds are stupid.

(Job 39:18) What time she lifteth up herself on high, she scorneth the horse and his rider.

(Job 39:19) Hast thou given the horse strength? hast thou clothed his neck with thunder?

Probably refers to the galloping sound with the wind rustling the horse's mane.

(Job 39:20) Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper? the glory of his nostrils is terrible.

(Job 39:21) He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength: he goeth on to meet the armed men.

(Job 39:22) He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted; neither turneth he back from the sword.

(Job 39:23) The quiver rattleth against him, the glittering spear and the shield.

This was long before people began riding horses. People hunted horses for food.

(Job 39:24) He swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage: neither believeth he that it is the sound of the trumpet.

(Job 39:25) He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of the captains, and the shouting.

(Job 39:26) Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?

(Job 39:27) Doth the eagle mount up at thy command, and make her nest on high?

(Job 39:28) She dwelleth and abideth on the rock, upon the crag of the rock, and the strong place.

(Job 39:29) From thence she seeketh the prey, and her eyes behold afar off.

(Job 39:30) Her young ones also suck up blood: and where the slain are, there is she.

(Job 40:1) Moreover the LORD answered Job, and said,

(Job 40:2) Shall he that contendeth with the Almighty instruct him? he that reproveth God, let him answer it.

Job Answers God the first time

(Job 40:3) Then Job answered the LORD, and said,

(Job 40:4) Behold, I am vile; what shall I answer thee? I will lay mine hand upon my mouth.

(Job 40:5) Once have I spoken; but I will not answer: yea, twice; but I will proceed no further.

God speaks again

(Job 40:6) Then answered the LORD unto Job out of the whirlwind, and said,

(Job 40:7) Gird up thy loins now like a man: I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me.

(Job 40:8) Wilt thou also disannul my judgment? wilt thou condemn me, that thou mayest be righteous?

(Job 40:9) Hast thou an arm like God? or canst thou thunder with a voice like him?

(Job 40:10) Deck thyself now with majesty and excellency; and array thyself with glory and beauty.

(Job 40:11) Cast abroad the rage of thy wrath: and behold every one that is proud, and abase him.

(Job 40:12) Look on every one that is proud, and bring him low; and tread down the wicked in their place.

(Job 40:13) Hide them in the dust together; and bind their faces in secret.

(Job 40:14) Then will I also confess unto thee that thine own right hand can save thee.


(Job 40:15) Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox.

(Job 40:16) Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly.

(Job 40:17) He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together.

(Job 40:18) His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron.

(Job 40:19) He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him.

(Job 40:20) Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play.

(Job 40:21) He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens.

(Job 40:22) The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about.

(Job 40:23) Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth.

(Job 40:24) He taketh it with his eyes: his nose pierceth through snares.


Probably a crocodile from the Nile river. Those living in Palestine would know of it only by hearsay. This passage emphasizes how you can't hurt it, probably true for those having no experience with it.

Some might think this creature is a fire breathing dragon because of the long emphasis on fire coming from its mouth and nose. But the emphasis is actually on smoke, in this case, exhaled steam / mist / fog. They misattribute it to fire and probably think they see fire which is actually glinting reflections of light from its teeth and moist leathery skin.

Perhaps the Leviathan is the serpent of Genesis 3.

(Job 41:1) Canst thou draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down?

You catch it with a fishhook. Probably in Job's day no one had captured a crocodile. Later they did capture them in the manner described: with hooks and by tying ropes around their lower jaw and tongue.

This creature is described with knowledge of people who captured them, probably the Egyptians in the Nile.

(Job 41:2) Canst thou put an hook into his nose? or bore his jaw through with a thorn?

(Job 41:3) Will he make many supplications unto thee? will he speak soft words unto thee?

After capturing animals you can hear them moan.

(Job 41:4) Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever?

You can't domesticate it because you can't capture it.

(Job 41:5) Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens?

(Job 41:6) Shall the companions make a banquet of him? shall they part him among the merchants?

You can't eat it or sell parts of it because you can't capture it.

(Job 41:7) Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears?

(Job 41:8) Lay thine hand upon him, remember the battle, do no more.

(Job 41:9) Behold, the hope [expectation] of him is in vain [false]: shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him?

If you think you can capture it, you are wrong.

(Job 41:10) None is so fierce that dare stir him up: who then is able to stand before me?

If humans are so powerless before a crocodile, they are surely infinitely weaker in the presence of God.

(Job 41:11) Who hath prevented [given to] me, that I should repay him? whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine.

God does not have to repay humans for anything they do for him because he already owns everything.

(Job 41:12) I will not conceal [keep quiet about] his parts [limbs], nor his power [strength], nor his comely [attractive] proportion [form].

Talking again about Leviathan.

(Job 41:13) Who can discover the face [outer] of his garment [coat]? or who can come to him [penetrate] with his double bridle [armor]?

(Job 41:14) Who can open the doors of his face [=mouth]? his teeth are terrible round about.

(Job 41:15) His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close [tight] seal.

(Job 41:16) One is so near to another, that no air can come between them.

(Job 41:17) They are joined one to another, they stick together, that they cannot be sundered [separated].

(Job 41:18) By his neesings [sneezes] a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.

It snorts and sneezes and the reflected light glints off the cloud of mist from its nose.

(Job 41:19) Out of his mouth go burning lamps [torches], and sparks of fire leap out.

The mist from its mouth as it rises above the surface of the water resembles the smoke from a fire so, I suppose, the people not familiar with this animal assumed its source was fire.

(Job 41:20) Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething [boiling] pot or caldron.

The word "caldron" could be referring to burning reeds having water poured over them with the steam rising in turbulent clouds.

(Job 41:21) His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth.

This image of steam and mist from fire is being overdone. This is a problem with the book of Job in general; the writer doesn't know when to change the subject. It's way too long for the amount of interesting content.

(Job 41:22) In his neck remaineth [is] strength, and sorrow [fear] is turned into [leaps]  joy  before him.

(Job 41:23) The flakes [folds] of his flesh are joined together: they are firm in themselves; they cannot be moved.

(Job 41:24) His heart [chest] is as firm [hard] as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether [lower] millstone.

(Job 41:25) When he raiseth up himself, the mighty are afraid: by reason of breakings [thrashings] they purify themselves [retreat / run away].

(Job 41:26) The sword of him that layeth at [that reaches] him cannot hold [has no effect]: the spear, the dart, nor the habergeon [body armor?].

(Job 41:27) He esteemeth [regards] iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood.

(Job 41:28) The arrow cannot make him flee: slingstones are turned with him into stubble.

(Job 41:29) Darts [clubs] are counted [regarded] as stubble: he laugheth at the shaking [rattling] of a spear.

Warriors rattle their weapons and shout and make faces with aggressive body movements to scare their opponents. Animals know nothing of all this human social behavior and are undisturbed by it.

(Job 41:30) Sharp stones are under him: he spreadeth sharp pointed things upon the mire.

Talking about its underside and the trail it leaves in the mud, as if it were dragging sharp stones.

(Job 41:31) He maketh the deep to boil like a pot: he maketh the sea like a pot of ointment.

It lives in the ocean or a large river such as the Nile.

(Job 41:32) He maketh a path [wake] to shine after him; one would think the deep to be hoary [white haired].

(Job 41:33) Upon earth there is not his like, who is made without fear.

Crocodiles approached by humans act as if they have no fear. At least that's what these people think who have only heard about how ferocious they are but haven't seen them for themselves.

(Job 41:34) He beholdeth [looks down on] all high things [the haughty]: he is a king over all the children of pride.

Job answers God the second time

(Job 42:1) Then Job answered the LORD, and said,

(Job 42:2) I know that thou canst do every thing, and that no thought can be withholden from thee.

(Job 42:3) Who is he that hideth counsel without knowledge? therefore have I uttered that I understood not; things too wonderful for me, which I knew not.

(Job 42:4) Hear, I beseech thee, and I will speak: I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me.

(Job 42:5) I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee.

(Job 42:6) Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes.

God speaks a third time

(Job 42:7) And it was so, that after the LORD had spoken these words unto Job, the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite, My wrath is kindled against thee, and against thy two friends: for ye have not spoken of me the thing that is right, as my servant Job hath.

Apparently, Eliphaz was the elder of the 4. He spoke much more than the others. He misspoke about God and his character.

Job spoke of God correctly.

(Job 42:8) Therefore take unto you now seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to my servant Job, and offer up for yourselves a burnt offering; and my servant Job shall pray for you: for him will I accept: lest I deal with you after your folly, in that ye have not spoken of me the thing which is right, like my servant Job.

It seems they had their herds with them. They came from a long distance away and would not easily be able to make a trip back home to fetch some animals to sacrifice.

Job spoke about God correctly.


(Job 42:9) So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went, and did according as the LORD commanded them: the LORD also accepted Job.

(Job 42:10) And the LORD turned the captivity [restored the fortunes] of Job, when he prayed for his friends: also the LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before.

Only upon praying for his friends were his fortunes restored.

(Job 42:11) Then came there unto him all his brethren, and all his sisters, and all they that had been of his acquaintance before, and did eat bread with him in his house: and they bemoaned him, and comforted him over all the evil that the LORD had brought upon him: every man also gave him a piece of money, and every one an earring of gold.

(Job 42:12) So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning: for he had fourteen thousand sheep, and six thousand camels, and a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she asses [donkeys].

(Job 42:13) He had also seven sons and three daughters.

(Job 42:14) And he called the name of the first, Jemima; and the name of the second, Kezia; and the name of the third, Kerenhappuch.

(Job 42:15) And in all the land were no women found so fair as the daughters of Job: and their father gave them inheritance among their brethren.

(Job 42:16) After this lived Job an hundred and forty years, and saw his sons, and his sons' sons, even four generations.

(Job 42:17) So Job died, being old and full of days.

King James Version