I recommend Tim McGrew, a Christian apologist and philosopher. Many YouTube videos about the gospels and Acts of topics such as: who wrote them, internal and external evidence of their reliability, alleged contradictions and historic errors.
The gospel of Luke and the book of Acts were both written by Luke for Gentile Christians. He was a companion of the apostle Paul and was highly educated. He interviewed many people and drew from his long relationship with Paul. He was, therefore, very familiar with the many details of what occurred in the apostolic era, including the life of Christ and the apostles.
(Luke 1:1) Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us,
Luke remarks that others have already written gospels, meaning that the gospels of Matthew and Mark were already written and in circulation.
Perhaps the phrase "in order" means narrating the events in chronological sequence or perhaps it refers to some other kind of order such as fitting it in to a one year long liturgical cycle. But the phrase "in order" is missing from some translations. I doubt if Luke's account is strictly chronological.
(Luke 1:2) Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, and ministers of the word;
Luke's sources of information are: (1) eyewitnesses, (2) Church leaders including the apostle Paul, (3) the gospels of Matthew and Mark.
(Luke 1:3) It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus,
Luke's understanding of the events was perfect. He is a good source of information.
Luke considers his writings to be infallible because they are true. (Anything true is, by definition, infallible.) The reason these people believed these things is because there are infallibly true. Christianity is a religion based on believing truth.
There is evidence from various writings of the Church Fathers that Luke's gospel is in chronological sequence. Perhaps the phrase "in order" refers to this. Or maybe it refers to grouping things together by topic or in order of importance.
(Luke 1:4) That thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed.
Luke is concerned to only proclaim things which are true. He wishes to confirm and verify that the Christian teachings are true and correct.
(Luke 1:5) There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea [Judea], a certain priest named Zacharias [Zechariah], of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth [Elizabeth].
(Luke 1:6) And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.
(Luke 1:7) And they had no child, because that Elisabeth [Elizabeth] was barren, and they both were now well stricken in years.
I doubt if all the couples in the Bible who couldn't have children were because the women were infertile. Perhaps all that is meant is: they didn't have a child because they couldn't have one.
(Luke 1:8) And it came to pass, that while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his course,
(Luke 1:9) According to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord.
(Luke 1:10) And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.
(Luke 1:11) And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
Zechariah encountered an angel.
(Luke 1:12) And when Zacharias [Zechariah] saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.
(Luke 1:13) But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias [Zechariah]: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth [Elizabeth] shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.
(Luke 1:14) And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth.
(Luke 1:15) For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost [Spirit], even from his mother's womb.
(Luke 1:16) And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God.
(Luke 1:17) And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias [Elijah], to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
We should wonder how John the baptist turned the hearts of the fathers to the children? Perhaps through conversion of heart in those formerly disobedient to God. How can you be wise and pleasing to God without caring for your own children? it is simply not possible.
(Luke 1:18) And Zacharias [Zechariah] said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years.
(Luke 1:19) And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings.
(Luke 1:20) And, behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season.
(Luke 1:21) And the people waited for Zacharias [Zechariah], and marvelled that he tarried so long in the temple.
(Luke 1:22) And when he came out, he could not speak unto them: and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple: for he beckoned unto them, and remained speechless.
(Luke 1:23) And it came to pass, that, as soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished, he departed to his own house.
(Luke 1:24) And after those days his wife Elisabeth conceived, and hid herself five months, saying,
(Luke 1:25) Thus hath the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men.
(Luke 1:26) And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth,
(Luke 1:27) To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.
(Luke 1:28) And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail [greetings], thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.
This is part 1 and part 2A of the three parts of the "Hail Mary" Catholic prayer — "Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you... Blessed are you among women..." Notice there is no worship of Mary.
The phrase, "thou that art highly favored", is one word in the Greek, meaning, "graced". The question is, what is the nature of the grace imparted to her? Does it include shielding her from sin so that Jesus is conceived in a holy, pure, stainless, sinless vessel? The idea shouldn't horrify us yet it horrifies many.
(Luke 1:29) And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.
(Luke 1:30) And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God.
(Luke 1:31) And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
The name "Jesus" is actually "Joshua" meaning "Jehovah saved".
It is fitting that Jesus as deity would take on human nature in a sinless womb.
(Luke 1:32) He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
(Luke 1:33) And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
(Luke 1:34) Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?
(Luke 1:35) And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost [Spirit] shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.
(Luke 1:36) And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
(Luke 1:37) For with God nothing shall be impossible.
(Luke 1:38) And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.
(Luke 1:39) And Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Juda;
(Luke 1:40) And entered into the house of Zacharias [Zechariah], and saluted Elisabeth.
(Luke 1:41) And it came to pass, that, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost [Spirit]:
(Luke 1:42) And she spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.
Elizabeth had a Marian devotion; and this under the influence of the Holy Spirit. From this verse we see that it is reasonable to call Mary blessed. Notice that Mary is the most blessed of all women.
How did Elizabeth know the child in Mary's womb was also blessed? Presumably, when the unborn child John leaped in her womb, she knew something very special was going on. Since the Holy Spirit filled her, she was speaking prophetically. We see Elizabeth worshipping Jesus in the context of Mary. Before Jesus was born, there was no other way to worship him in person.
(Luke 1:43) And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?
Elizabeth, filled with the Holy Spirit, remarks that the child in Mary's womb is her Lord. Thus, she is the first person to refer to Mary as the mother of God, the Theotokos. She wonders why she is so blessed to experience this.
(Luke 1:44) For, lo, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy.
(Luke 1:45) And blessed is she that believed: for there shall be a performance of those things which were told her from the Lord.
(Luke 1:46) And Mary said, My soul doth [does] magnify [exalt] the Lord,
She refers to her soul as the part of a human that worships God. I mention this because some insist on a distinction between soul and spirit. Anyway, Mary supports my view; her soul interacts with God, not just her spirit.
(Luke 1:47) And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.
The spiritual part of humans has various attributes such as will, intellect, emotion, love.
(Luke 1:48) For he hath regarded the low estate [humble circumstances] of his handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth [now on] all generations shall call me blessed.
This is Mary prophecying that Christians will refer to her as the "blessed virgin Mary". We should call her this.
(Luke 1:49) For he that is mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is his name.
(Luke 1:50) And his mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation.
(Luke 1:51) He hath shewed [done] strength [mighty deeds] with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.
(Luke 1:52) He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and exalted them of low degree.
(Luke 1:53) He hath filled the hungry with good things; and the rich he hath sent empty away.
(Luke 1:54) He hath holpen [helped] his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy;
(Luke 1:55) As he spake [spoke] to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed [descendants] for ever.
Referring the Abraham and his descendants, all who were promised to be progenitors of a great nation of God.
(Luke 1:56) And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned to her own house.
Probably Mary stayed until after the birth of John.
(Luke 1:57) Now Elisabeth's [Elizabeth's] full time came that she should be delivered; and she brought forth a son.
(Luke 1:58) And her neighbours and her cousins heard how the Lord had shewed great mercy upon her; and they rejoiced with her.
(Luke 1:59) And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called him Zacharias [Zechariah], after the name of his father.
(Luke 1:60) And his mother answered and said, Not so; but he shall be called John.
(Luke 1:61) And they said unto her, There is none of thy kindred [relatives] that is called by this name.
(Luke 1:62) And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called.
(Luke 1:63) And he asked for a writing table, and wrote, saying, His name is John. And they marvelled all.
(Luke 1:64) And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue loosed, and he spake, and praised God.
(Luke 1:65) And fear came on all that dwelt round about them: and all these sayings were noised abroad throughout all the hill country of Judaea [Judea].
(Luke 1:66) And all they that heard them laid them up in their hearts, saying, What manner of child shall this be! And the hand of the Lord was with him.
(Luke 1:67) And his father Zacharias [Zechariah] was filled with the Holy Ghost [Spirit], and prophesied, saying,
(Luke 1:68) Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people,
We should wonder: what is the nature of this redemption? And who are the people of God? It seems to refer to those called "Israel".
(Luke 1:69) And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David;
(Luke 1:70) As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began:
(Luke 1:71) That we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us;
(Luke 1:72) To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant;
(Luke 1:73) The oath which he sware to our father Abraham,
(Luke 1:74) That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear,
(Luke 1:75) In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.
(Luke 1:76) And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways;
(Luke 1:77) To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins,
(Luke 1:78) Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us,
(Luke 1:79) To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace.
(Luke 1:80) And the child grew, and waxed [grew] strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his shewing [public appearance] unto Israel.
(Luke 2:1) And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.
(Luke 2:2) (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.)
(Luke 2:3) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.
(Luke 2:4) And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea [Judea], unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:)
(Luke 2:5) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.
(Luke 2:6) And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered.
(Luke 2:7) And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.
(Luke 2:8) And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.
This occurred in the spring when it was warm enough for the shepherds to be in the fields at night. Therefore, Jesus was born in the spring.
(Luke 2:9) And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid.
(Luke 2:10) And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.
(Luke 2:11) For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.
(Luke 2:12) And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.
(Luke 2:13) And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,
(Luke 2:14) Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.
(Luke 2:15) And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us.
(Luke 2:16) And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger.
(Luke 2:17) And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child.
(Luke 2:18) And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds.
(Luke 2:19) But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart.
(Luke 2:20) And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.
(Luke 2:21) And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, his name was called JESUS, which was so named of the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
(Luke 2:22) And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord;
(Luke 2:23) (As it is written in the law of the LORD, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord;)
(Luke 2:24) And to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.
(Luke 2:25) And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Ghost [Spirit] was upon him.
Some Christians, especially Charismatics, make a distinction between the Holy Spirit being on you versus being in you. The idea of the Holy Spirit on you implies he is on your body. But the body resides in the physical realm whereas the spirit, soul, and Holy Spirit reside in the spiritual realm. So whether the Holy Spirit is on you or in you; these are merely aspects of how entangled you soul is with the Holy Spirit or, maybe, how much the spirits of darkness are prevented from interacting with and influencing your soul.
(Luke 2:26) And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost [Spirit], that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ.
(Luke 2:27) And he came by the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law,
(Luke 2:28) Then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said,
(Luke 2:29) Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word:
(Luke 2:30) For mine eyes have seen thy salvation,
Jesus is referred to as "the salvation of God".
(Luke 2:31) Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people;
(Luke 2:32) A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.
(Luke 2:33) And Joseph and his mother marvelled at those things which were spoken of him.
(Luke 2:34) And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel; and for a sign which shall be spoken against;
(Luke 2:35) (Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also,) that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.
(Luke 2:36) And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser [Asher]: she was of a great age, and had lived with an husband seven years from her virginity;
The tribe of Asher was carried away into captivity by the Assyrians. Perhaps some took refuge in the southern kingdom before or perhaps not all were taken and the survivors still maintained their tribal identity.
(Luke 2:37) And she was a widow of about fourscore and four years, which departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.
(Luke 2:38) And she coming in that instant gave thanks likewise unto the Lord, and spake of him to all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem.
She spoke to those living in Jerusalem who were desiring the redemption of Jerusalem, meaning probably, casting off Roman rule, a political redemption. The Messiah was viewed by the Jews at that time as a political deliverer.
(Luke 2:39) And when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth.
(Luke 2:40) And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him.
(Luke 2:41) Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover.
(Luke 2:42) And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of the feast.
(Luke 2:43) And when they had fulfilled the days, as they returned, the child Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and Joseph and his mother knew not of it.
(Luke 2:44) But they, supposing him to have been in the company, went a day's journey; and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance.
(Luke 2:45) And when they found him not, they turned back again to Jerusalem, seeking him.
(Luke 2:46) And it came to pass, that after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions.
Often overlooked is that Jesus is conversing with the Jewish religious leaders implying he knew them. Most children likely would not have such easy access to them nor would these reigious leaders discuss religious topics in depth with children.
(Luke 2:47) And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers.
(Luke 2:48) And when they saw him, they were amazed: and his mother said unto him, Son, why hast thou thus dealt with us? behold, thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing.
(Luke 2:49) And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business?
(Luke 2:50) And they understood not the saying which he spake unto them.
(Luke 2:51) And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart.
(Luke 2:52) And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man.
(Luke 3:1) Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea [Judea], and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,
(Luke 3:2) Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias [Zechariah] in the wilderness.
As a prophet, we should expect John the baptist to hear from God. Perhaps we all hear from God?
(Luke 3:3) And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission [forgiveness] of sins;
Notice John the baptist performed a religious ritual. Those who heard him and took his message to heart submitted to his baptism. I doubt the scribes and Pharisees joined in to get baptized preferring instead to stand at a distance mocking.
Notice John the baptist's baptism resulted in the remission (pardoning, forgiving) of sins. We should wonder who forgives the sins: (1) God, or (2) John, on God's behalf.
This was quite a hardship for people to go hear John the baptist, likely taking several days. How could they afford to take off work? They would have to walk, carrying food, many miles, braving attacks by bandits. I suppose people today do this kind of thing when protesting or at music festivals or even taking a cruise ship.
John the baptist prepared people for the arrival of Jesus by preaching the need for repentance of sins, even establishing a religious ritual (baptism) to drive home the point.
The purpose of the coming of Jesus: to make it easier. Notice this implies it's possible without; just more hills to hike over, with the pebbles and gravel wearing out the sandals sooner.
Notice the phrase "his paths". Did John the baptist come to make it easier for Jesus, so he wouldn't have to hike up and down hills? If the unredeemed are unprepared, the gospel will not interest them. John the baptist highlighted the need for repenting for sin to gain forgiveness of sin by God; he established the key topic of the ministry of Jesus.
Four images (five counting the previous verse) about making travel easier. Modern highways do this.
If the barriers to God's message are removed, it's more likely the message will reach through.
The quote from Isaiah is from the Greek Septuagint. This raises a question for those claiming the scripture is inerrant, but only the original manuscripts. The Septuagint is not the original manuscript and is clearly not an accurate translation, yet it's quoted by the writers. Seems this should nullify the claim that, in this case, Luke is inerrant, because there is a clear error. Seems to me, we must allow for errors in the text because there are many.
(Luke 3:7) Then said he to the multitude that came forth to be baptized of him, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
(Luke 3:8) Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and begin not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, That God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.
(Luke 3:9) And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
(Luke 3:10) And the people asked him, saying, What shall we do then?
(Luke 3:11) He answereth and saith unto them, He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do likewise.
(Luke 3:12) Then came also publicans [tax collectors] to be baptized, and said unto him, Master, what shall we do?
(Luke 3:13) And he said unto them, Exact no more than that which is appointed you.
(Luke 3:14) And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages.
(Luke 3:15) And as the people were in expectation, and all men mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ, or not;
(Luke 3:16) John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet [strap] of whose shoes [sandals] I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost [Spirit] and with fire:
Servants untied the straps of the sandals of their masters. John the baptist is saying he is not worthy to be the servant of Jesus the Messiah who is so great.
(Luke 3:17) Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable.
(Luke 3:18) And many other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people.
(Luke 3:19) But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done,
(Luke 3:20) Added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison.
John the Baptist was imprisoned on the east side of the Dead Sea about 60 miles from Jerusalem.
(Luke 3:21) Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened,
The was probably autumn of 29 A.D. when Jesus was about 30 years old (between 26 and 34 years old), in fact, he was 33 years old.
(Luke 3:22) And the Holy Ghost [Spirit] descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.
In the next verse we learn that this was the beginning of Jesus' public ministry.
Just as Jesus starts his new life with baptism, so do Christians. Jesus prepared the baptismal waters for us by immersing himself in them, thus consecrating the rite of baptism and acknowledging that he is human as we are; he can, therefore, atone for our sin.
Baptism is a communal act; it requires at least one other person to perform the rite.
(Luke 3:23) And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli,
Jesus began his public ministry when he was about 30 years old (between 26 and 34 years old), the autumn of 29 A.D. In fact, he was 33 years old.
People assumed that Jesus was the biological offspring of Joseph but we know better. This genealogy may be referring to Jesus' biological genealogy through Mary.
In Matthew's gospel the father of Joseph is Jacob but in Luke's gospel the father of Joseph is Heli. How do we resolve this? In the Protoevangelium of James (not necessarily factual) we learn that Mary's mother is Anna and her father is Joachim, so treating Luke's genealogy as that of Mary doesn't solve it. Certainly Matthew's version is compressed with gaps to fit the 14 x 3 motif. The solution from the early church fathers: Jacob was Joseph's biological father (the word "begat"). Jacob and Heli were brothers with different fathers but the same mother and so the genealogies diverge. Heli died before having a child so his brother Jacob married his wife to carry on his name and they begat Joseph who was therefore Heli's son in name. Matthan married Matthat's wife after Heli was born and after Matthat died.
This genealogy traces back to Adam, who was not the first human but, rather, the first monotheist, the first human of redemption history. Since all humans are genetically equal, including those not descended from Adam, this bloodline is not for the purpose of in some way establishing genetically pure human nature. Rather, it's about Satan's trying to destroy monotheism and making the appearance of the Messiah impossible. This is because God promised that the Messiah would be a descendant of Adam through Eve. From that time forward, Adam's descendants were targets of Satan and, thus, specially protected by God's grace. This led to the covenants with Noah, Abraham, and Moses.
(Luke 3:24) Which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi, which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Janna, which was the son of Joseph,
(Luke 3:25) Which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Amos, which was the son of Naum, which was the son of Esli, which was the son of Nagge,
(Luke 3:26) Which was the son of Maath, which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Semei, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Juda,
(Luke 3:27) Which was the son of Joanna, which was the son of Rhesa, which was the son of Zorobabel, which was the son of Salathiel, which was the son of Neri,
(Luke 3:28) Which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Addi, which was the son of Cosam, which was the son of Elmodam, which was the son of Er,
(Luke 3:29) Which was the son of Jose, which was the son of Eliezer, which was the son of Jorim, which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi,
(Luke 3:30) Which was the son of Simeon, which was the son of Juda, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Jonan, which was the son of Eliakim,
(Luke 3:31) Which was the son of Melea, which was the son of Menan, which was the son of Mattatha, which was the son of Nathan, which was the son of David,
(Luke 3:33) Which was the son of Aminadab, which was the son of Aram, which was the son of Esrom, which was the son of Phares, which was the son of Juda [Judah],
(Luke 3:34) Which was the son of Jacob, which was the son of Isaac, which was the son of Abraham, which was the son of Thara, which was the son of Nachor,
(Luke 3:35) Which was the son of Saruch, which was the son of Ragau, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Sala,
(Luke 3:36) Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem [Shem], which was the son of Noe [Noah], which was the son of Lamech,
(Luke 3:37) Which was the son of Mathusala [Methuselah], which was the son of Enoch, which was the son of Jared, which was the son of Maleleel [Mahalaleel], which was the son of Cainan,
(Luke 3:38) Which was the son of Enos [Enosh], which was the son of Seth, which was the son of Adam, which was the son of God.
It should be unnecessary to start the genealogy with Adam since all humans are descended from Adam. And if you were concerned with those descended from Seth vs. others, that fact should be mentioned — but I know of no orthodox teaching based on this distinction. It seems to me the genealogy should start with Abraham since he was given the promise of a great nation.
This is the only mention of Adam in the gospels. Apparently it's not that important a topic.
(Luke 4:1) And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost [Spirit] returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness,
Since Jesus was human, his spirit lived in the same part of the spiritual realm we do, and he was subject as we are to demonic oppression. Notice that God never forces anyone to sin, but he allows for the souls of everyone to be tormented by wicked spirits because he honored Adam and Eve's choice to reside in Satan's kingdom of darkness.
(Luke 4:2) Being forty  days tempted of the devil. And in those days he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered [was hungry].
Jesus was harassed by Satan much as we are.
What is the nature of temptation? There are 2 types...
A fast this long causes damage to the organs, immune system, and brain. Sometimes it is fatal. We should wonder why Jesus did something so extreme; obviously not in the plan of God for how we are to treat our human body.
We should wonder where Jesus got water? Without water he would surely have died long before the 40 days ended.
(Luke 4:3) And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread.
(Luke 4:4) And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.
(Luke 4:5) And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.
(Luke 4:6) And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it.
Satan has in his possession the power and the glory of all the kingdoms of the world of all time. This means he is ruling over this world and over the affairs of humans. God gave Lucifer this power and will not take it away until after the second coming of Christ, at which time, all this will be cast into the lake of fire.
I suppose this was a real temptation for Jesus because he could have created a utopia on earth and alleviated untold amounts of human pain and suffering. But the true utopia is the final eternal new heavens and new earth.
Satan is pretending to care about the welfare of humans by offering to let Jesus fix it. But if Satan really cared about such things he could have fixed this himself; he doesn't care about us, he only cares about being equal to God, about being worshipped by whoever he can fool into worshipping him.
Satan is ruling over and orchestrating all the affairs of human history and all the political events of this world. This explains why there is so much human misery: civil wars, famines, plagues, wars, genocide. Those promoting human utopia are deceived and deceivers — there can be no utopia as long as Satan is ruling this world from the spiritual realm.
(Luke 4:7) If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.
(Luke 4:8) And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
(Luke 4:9) And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence:
(Luke 4:10) For it is written, He shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee:
(Luke 4:11) And in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.
(Luke 4:12) And Jesus answering said unto him, It is said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
(Luke 4:13) And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.
(Luke 4:14) And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee: and there went out a fame of him through all the region round about.
(Luke 4:15) And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified of all.
(Luke 4:16) And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read.
(Luke 4:17) And there was delivered unto him the book [scroll] of the prophet Esaias [Isaiah]. And when he had opened [unrolled] the book [scroll], he found the place where it was written,
Probably by coincidence, the scroll was already near this passage in Isaiah; it would take far to long to scroll all the way through the entire scroll to find it.
Two important facts we learn from this verse...
(Luke 4:18) The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised,
(Luke 4:20) And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister, and sat down. And the eyes of all them that were in the synagogue were fastened on him.
(Luke 4:21) And he began to say unto them, This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears.
All the glorious blessings referred to in the portion of Isaiah surrounding the quote Jesus read, all these are fulfilled in Jesus. He is the redeemer who will usher in the new heavens and new earth and who provides for the redemption of those who will inhabit it for all eternity. The second coming of Christ may be hundreds or thousands of millions or billions of years yet future, but each person will begin the journey at death and even before that upon receiving the sealing of the Holy Spirit upon their conversion.
(Luke 4:22) And all bare him witness, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth. And they said, Is not this Joseph's son?
(Luke 4:23) And he said unto them, Ye will surely say unto me this proverb, Physician, heal thyself: whatsoever we have heard done in Capernaum, do also here in thy country.
(Luke 4:24) And he said, Verily I say unto you, No prophet is accepted in his own country.
(Luke 4:25) But I tell you of a truth, many widows were in Israel in the days of Elias [Elijah], when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when great famine was throughout all the land;
(Luke 4:26) But unto none of them was Elias [Elijah] sent, save unto Sarepta, a city of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow.
(Luke 4:27) And many lepers were in Israel in the time of Eliseus the prophet; and none of them was cleansed, saving Naaman the Syrian.
(Luke 4:28) And all they in the synagogue, when they heard these things, were filled with wrath,
Jesus gave two example of God blessing non-Jews. These Jews thought God only loved them and became very angry at the mention of the idea that God loved others as well. This kind of thinking is all-too-common today and leads to wars, persecution, and abuse.
(Luke 4:29) And rose up, and thrust him out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon their city was built, that they might cast him down headlong.
A mass murder in action; not the murder of many by one but, rather, the murder of one by many. Total mob rule probably initiated by a few hot-blooded religious leaders. This reminds me of the burning at the stake by Catholic leaders of so-called heretics (who would today be considered fellow-Christians). And Catholics are not the only ones guilty of this kind of thing; the Protestants did it too (as did the Orthodox church). Sadly, these kinds of things still occur today, perhaps not always resulting in a killing, but all kinds of persecution of Christians by Christians.
(Luke 4:30) But he passing through the midst of them went his way,
(Luke 4:31) And came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and taught them on the sabbath days.
(Luke 4:32) And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his word was with power.
(Luke 4:33) And in the synagogue there was a man, which had a spirit of an unclean devil, and cried out with a loud voice,
(Luke 4:34) Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art; the Holy One of God.
(Luke 4:35) And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him. And when the devil had thrown him in the midst, he came out of him, and hurt him not.
(Luke 4:36) And they were all amazed, and spake among themselves, saying, What a word is this! for with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits, and they come out.
(Luke 4:37) And the fame of him went out into every place of the country round about.
(Luke 4:38) And he arose out of the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. And Simon's wife's mother was taken with a great fever; and they besought him for her.
Peter was married, and apparently his wife's mother lived with them. His house was apparently in Capernaum not too far from the synagogue even though elsewhere Peter is identified with Bethsaida. With everybody in the house it must have been quite crowded. When Peter said he left everything to follow Jesus he didn't mean his house or his wife or his boat. Presumably he didn't have to pay rent nor property tax nor boat storage.
(Luke 4:39) And he stood over her, and rebuked the fever; and it left her: and immediately she arose and ministered unto them.
(Luke 4:40) Now when the sun was setting, all they that had any sick with divers [diverse] diseases brought them unto him; and he laid his hands on every one of them, and healed them.
(Luke 4:41) And devils [demons] also came out of many, crying out, and saying, Thou art Christ the Son of God. And he rebuking them suffered them not to speak: for they knew that he was Christ.
(Luke 4:42) And when it was day, he departed and went into a desert place: and the people sought him, and came unto him, and stayed him, that he should not depart from them.
(Luke 4:43) And he said unto them, I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also: for therefore am I sent.
(Luke 4:44) And he preached in the synagogues of Galilee.
(Luke 5:1) And it came to pass, that, as the people pressed upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of Gennesaret,
(Luke 5:2) And saw two ships standing by the lake: but the fishermen were gone out of them, and were washing their nets.
(Luke 5:3) And he entered into one of the ships, which was Simon's, and prayed him that he would thrust out a little from the land. And he sat down, and taught the people out of the ship.
In this passage, Peter is fishing again. We must assume that Jesus had already chosen the 12 disciples. Perhaps the fishermen fished when they were in Galilee, perhaps to help out their family, perhaps to earn some money for the ministry.
(Luke 5:4) Now when he had left speaking, he said unto Simon, Launch out into the deep, and let down your nets for a draught [draft=load].
(Luke 5:5) And Simon answering said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net.
(Luke 5:6) And when they had this done, they inclosed [enclosed] a great multitude [quantity] of fishes: and their net brake [broke].
(Luke 5:7) And they beckoned unto their partners, which were in the other ship, that they should come and help them. And they came, and filled both the ships, so that they began to sink.
(Luke 5:8) When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord.
The miraculous catch of fish which Peter doubted has triggered Peter's self-awareness of his own inadequacy for the task Jesus has selected him for, as the top ranking disciple who must lead and inspire the others.
Perhaps Peter was thinking of it from the perspective of Jesus. After a long night of hard work fishing Peter was likely exhausted and more spiritually sensitive than usual so the enormous significance of this miracle overwhelmed Peter. Jesus should not be observed in the presence of a sinner such as Peter so as not to ruin his reputation as a holy man.
Perhaps Peter is merely being honest with himself and with Jesus in proclaiming himself as unqualified to be his disciple. Perhaps Peter sensed Jesus was calling him to a great work in performing this miracle in his presence. A previous miracle recorded by Luke also occurred in Peter's presence, in his house. Clearly Jesus is pursuing Peter, even getting in his boat without asking and accompanying him while fishing.
(Luke 5:9) For he was astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught [draft=load] of the fishes which they had taken:
Leading people into the kingdom of God is miraculous, energized by the Holy Spirit.
After visiting a church for the first time and leaving via the line to shake hands with the minister, he grabbed my hand and wouldn't let go — he "caught me" so I wouldn't escape while he finished up talking to the person in front of me. I doubt Jesus is talking about this kind of catching or any other involving persuading people to join your church or community.
(Luke 5:11) And when they had brought their ships to land, they forsook all, and followed him.
Apparently they still kept their homes and fishing business with the boats and nets; they came back from time to time.
(Luke 5:12) And it came to pass, when he was in a certain city, behold a man full of leprosy: who seeing Jesus fell on his face, and besought him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.
(Luke 5:13) And he put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will: be thou clean. And immediately the leprosy departed from him.
(Luke 5:14) And he charged him to tell no man: but go, and shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing, according as Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.
(Luke 5:15) But so much the more went there a fame abroad of him: and great multitudes came together to hear, and to be healed by him of their infirmities.
(Luke 5:16) And he withdrew himself into the wilderness, and prayed.
(Luke 5:17) And it came to pass on a certain day, as he was teaching, that there were Pharisees and doctors [teachers] of the law sitting by, which were come out of every town of Galilee, and Judaea [Judea], and Jerusalem: and the power of the Lord was present to heal them.
Even Jesus called upon the power of God for healing. As a human, he was bound by the same limitations as we are and had to reach outside of himself in performing miracles. Of course, as deity, he had command of all the powers of God. But amazingly, God grants us use of these same powers from time to time. A familiar example is love; when we love we are exercising a divine power since God is love.
These Pharisees and teachers of the law were followers of Jesus, not out of love and devotion but, rather, to mock and discredit him if they could. This reminds me of unbelieving critics of Christianity who spend obsessive amounts of time on the topic. Why don't they instead do things they believe in? I suppose the goal is to stamp out thr truth in favor of a lie.
(Luke 5:18) And, behold, men brought in a bed a man which was taken with a palsy: and they sought means to bring him in, and to lay him before him.
(Luke 5:19) And when they could not find by what way they might bring him in because of the multitude, they went upon the housetop, and let him down through the tiling with his couch into the midst before Jesus.
(Luke 5:20) And when he saw their faith, he said unto him, Man, thy sins are forgiven thee.
People use this verse to support the idea that sickness and disease is caused by sin. Elsewhere, Jesus mentions you can be sick for reasons other than sin, not self-caused. The book of Job indicates this as well.
Notice Jesus sees the faith of all of them, including those who lowered the man before Jesus.
Having sins forgiven by God means you are redeemed.
(Luke 5:21) And the scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, Who is this which speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone?
(Luke 5:22) But when Jesus perceived their thoughts, he answering said unto them, What reason ye in your hearts?
(Luke 5:23) Whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Rise up and walk?
(Luke 5:24) But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power upon earth to forgive sins, (he said unto the sick of the palsy,) I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy couch, and go into thine house.
(Luke 5:25) And immediately he rose up before them, and took up that whereon he lay, and departed to his own house, glorifying God.
(Luke 5:26) And they were all amazed, and they glorified God, and were filled with fear, saying, We have seen strange things to day.
(Luke 5:28) And he left all, rose up, and followed him.
(Luke 5:30) But their scribes and Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying, Why do ye eat and drink with publicans [tax collectors] and sinners?
(Luke 5:31) And Jesus answering said unto them, They that are whole need not a physician; but they that are sick.
(Luke 5:32) I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
(Luke 5:33) And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink?
(Luke 5:34) And he said unto them, Can ye make the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them?
(Luke 5:35) But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.
(Luke 5:36) And he spake also a parable unto them; No man putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old; if otherwise, then both the new maketh a rent, and the piece that was taken out of the new agreeth not with the old.
(Luke 5:37) And no man putteth new wine into old bottles; else the new wine will burst the bottles, and be spilled, and the bottles shall perish.
(Luke 5:38) But new wine must be put into new bottles; and both are preserved.
(Luke 5:39) No man also having drunk old wine straightway [immediately] desireth new: for he saith, The old is better.
(Luke 6:1) And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, that he went through the corn fields; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.
(Luke 6:2) And certain of the Pharisees said unto them, Why do ye that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath days?
(Luke 6:3) And Jesus answering them said, Have ye not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was an hungred, and they which were with him;
(Luke 6:4) How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the shewbread, and gave also to them that were with him; which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests alone?
(Luke 6:5) And he said unto them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
(Luke 6:6) And it came to pass also on another sabbath, that he entered into the synagogue and taught: and there was a man whose right hand was withered.
(Luke 6:7) And the scribes and Pharisees watched him, whether he would heal on the sabbath day; that they might find an accusation against him.
(Luke 6:8) But he knew their thoughts, and said to the man which had the withered hand, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. And he arose and stood forth.
(Luke 6:9) Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it?
(Luke 6:10) And looking round about upon them all, he said unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he did so: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
(Luke 6:11) And they were filled with madness; and communed one with another what they might do to Jesus.
(Luke 6:12) And it came to pass in those days, that he went out into a mountain to pray, and continued all night in prayer to God.
(Luke 6:14) Simon, (whom he also named Peter,) and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew,
(Luke 6:15) Matthew and Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon called Zelotes,
(Luke 6:16) And Judas the brother of James, and Judas Iscariot, which also was the traitor.
(Luke 6:17) And he came down with them, and stood in the plain, and the company of his disciples, and a great multitude of people out of all Judaea [Judea] and Jerusalem, and from the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon, which came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases;
(Luke 6:18) And they that were vexed with unclean spirits: and they were healed.
(Luke 6:19) And the whole multitude sought to touch him: for there went virtue out of him, and healed them all.
(Luke 6:20) And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples, and said, Blessed be ye poor: for yours is the kingdom of God.
(Luke 6:21) Blessed are ye that hunger now: for ye shall be filled. Blessed are ye that weep now: for ye shall laugh.
(Luke 6:22) Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man's sake.
(Luke 6:23) Rejoice ye in that day, and leap for joy: for, behold, your reward is great in heaven: for in the like manner did their fathers unto the prophets.
Since they are waiting for Christ's coming, this implies that he comes at their death; that everyone encounters Christ at death and they are received into the kingdom of heaven at that time. It doesn't make sense for them to be exhorted to wait for Christ's coming if it occurs thousands (millions?) of years after they have died.
Notice their reward is in heaven. It doesn't say they reside in heaven, merely that the rewards come from heaven. The soul resides in the spiritual real even while we are alive. After death, the soul continues to live in the spiritual realm. In the new heavens and new earth the soul still resides in the spiritual realm.
(Luke 6:24) But woe unto you that are rich! for ye have received your consolation [comfort].
Jesus is talking about the new heavens and new earth. Those are spiritually at risk who look to riches, wealth, and luxury as their source of comfort rather than having an eternal spiritual perspective with God as the focus.
Life in the new heavens and new earth will be pleasurable, comfortable, joyous.
(Luke 6:25) Woe unto you that are full! for ye shall hunger. Woe unto you that laugh now! for ye shall mourn and weep.
(Luke 6:26) Woe unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! for so did their fathers to the false prophets.
(Luke 6:27) But I say unto you which hear, Love your enemies, do good to them which hate you,
(Luke 6:28) Bless them that curse you, and pray for them which despitefully use you.
(Luke 6:29) And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other; and him that taketh away thy cloak forbid not to take thy coat also.
(Luke 6:30) Give to every man that asketh of thee; and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again.
(Luke 6:31) And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.
(Luke 6:32) For if ye love them which love you, what thank have ye? for sinners also love those that love them.
(Luke 6:33) And if ye do good to them which do good to you, what thank [credit] have ye? for sinners also do even the same.
The problem with our modern materialistic culture of seeking continual economic growth: it neglects the poor and weak who can't prosper under the onslaught of those who will do anything for wealth and power. We should guarantee everyone in society has their basic needs met even though they can't repay.
(Luke 6:34) And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? for sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again.
(Luke 6:35) But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest: for he is kind unto the unthankful and to the evil.
(Luke 6:36) Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful.
(Luke 6:37) Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven:
(Luke 6:38) Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again.
If we are stingy in giving, we will miss out on the joy of giving. Those who give to us will abundantly give if we are a generous giver to others. Stingy people have a way of making people unwilling to give to them.
This verse is a key verse for the word-faith health-wealth teachers who apply it literally as follows: "If you give abundantly to my ministry, God will bless you with prosperity". Of course, if after all this abundant giving you are not prosperous, this is your own fault for not having enough faith. I reject this false teaching.
(Luke 6:39) And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?
(Luke 6:40) The disciple is not above his master: but every one that is perfect shall be as his master.
(Luke 6:41) And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but perceivest not the beam that is in thine own eye?
(Luke 6:42) Either how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me pull out the mote that is in thine eye, when thou thyself beholdest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of thine own eye, and then shalt thou see clearly to pull out the mote that is in thy brother's eye.
(Luke 6:43) For a good tree bringeth not forth corrupt fruit; neither doth a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.
(Luke 6:44) For every tree is known by his own fruit. For of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes.
(Luke 6:45) A good man out of the good treasure of his heart bringeth forth that which is good; and an evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart bringeth forth that which is evil: for of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaketh.
(Luke 6:46) And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say?
(Luke 6:47) Whosoever cometh to me, and heareth my sayings, and doeth them, I will shew you to whom he is like:
(Luke 6:48) He is like a man which built an house, and digged deep, and laid the foundation on a rock: and when the flood arose, the stream beat vehemently upon that house, and could not shake it: for it was founded upon a rock.
(Luke 6:49) But he that heareth, and doeth not, is like a man that without a foundation built an house upon the earth; against which the stream did beat vehemently, and immediately it fell; and the ruin of that house was great.
The Bible clearly states that it is foolish to build homes in flood zones or on sandbars and other unstable ground. It is hard to have sympathy for people whose homes are destroyed from this unless the are ignorant of the condition or forced into it by economic necessity.
(Luke 7:1) Now when he had ended all his sayings in the audience of the people, he entered into Capernaum.
(Luke 7:2) And a certain centurion's servant, who was dear unto him, was sick, and ready to die.
(Luke 7:3) And when he heard of Jesus, he sent unto him the elders of the Jews, beseeching him that he would come and heal his servant.
(Luke 7:4) And when they came to Jesus, they besought him instantly, saying, That he was worthy for whom he should do this:
(Luke 7:5) For he loveth our nation, and he hath built us a synagogue.
(Luke 7:6) Then Jesus went with them. And when he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying unto him, Lord, trouble not thyself: for I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter under my roof:
(Luke 7:7) Wherefore neither thought I myself worthy to come unto thee: but say in a word, and my servant shall be healed.
(Luke 7:8) For I also am a man set under authority, having under me soldiers, and I say unto one, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it.
(Luke 7:9) When Jesus heard these things, he marvelled at him, and turned him about, and said unto the people that followed him, I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel.
(Luke 7:10) And they that were sent, returning to the house, found the servant whole that had been sick.
(Luke 7:11) And it came to pass the day after, that he went into a city called Nain; and many of his disciples went with him, and much people, north of Samaria.
Nain is in the region of Galilee.
(Luke 7:12) Now when he came nigh [near] to the gate of the city, behold, there was a dead man carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow: and much people of the city was with her.
(Luke 7:13) And when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not.
(Luke 7:14) And he came and touched the bier: and they that bare him stood still. And he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise.
(Luke 7:15) And he that was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he delivered him to his mother.
(Luke 7:16) And there came a fear on all: and they glorified God, saying, That a great prophet is risen up among us; and, That God hath visited his people.
(Luke 7:17) And this rumour of him went forth throughout all Judaea [Judea], and throughout all the region round about.
Mention is made that the news of this miracle travelled south, to Judea, leapfrogging across Samaria which was south of Nain. It's odd that mention is made of Judea since it seems Jesus didn't directly travel there but instead went back to the north and east. Perhaps the focus of this account is what will happen when Jesus finally arrives in Jerusalem.
(Luke 7:18) And the disciples of John shewed him of all these things.
(Luke 7:19) And John calling unto him two of his disciples sent them to Jesus, saying, Art thou he that should come? or look we for another?
John the Baptist was imprisoned on the east side of the Dead Sea about 60 miles from Jerusalem.
(Luke 7:20) When the men were come unto him, they said, John Baptist hath sent us unto thee, saying, Art thou he that should come? or look we for another?
(Luke 7:21) And in that same hour he cured many of their infirmities and plagues, and of evil spirits; and unto many that were blind he gave sight.
(Luke 7:22) Then Jesus answering said unto them, Go your way, and tell John what things ye have seen and heard; how that the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, to the poor the gospel is preached.
(Luke 7:23) And blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended in me.
(Luke 7:24) And when the messengers of John were departed, he began to speak unto the people concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness for to see? A reed shaken with the wind?
(Luke 7:25) But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they which are gorgeously apparelled, and live delicately, are in kings' courts.
(Luke 7:26) But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and much more than a prophet.
(Luke 7:27) This is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.
(Luke 7:28) For I say unto you, Among those that are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptist: but he that is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he.
(Luke 7:29) And all the people that heard him, and the publicans, justified God, being baptized with the baptism of John.
(Luke 7:30) But the Pharisees and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against themselves, being not baptized of him.
(Luke 7:31) And the Lord said, Whereunto then shall I liken the men of this generation? and to what are they like?
(Luke 7:32) They are like unto children sitting in the marketplace, and calling one to another, and saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned to you, and ye have not wept.
(Luke 7:33) For John the Baptist came neither eating bread nor drinking wine; and ye say, He hath a devil.
(Luke 7:34) The Son of man is come eating and drinking; and ye say, Behold a gluttonous man, and a winebibber [drunkard], a friend of publicans [tax collectors] and sinners!
Jesus drank wine. Some say the wine in those days didn't have alcohol. Nonsense! This is the kind of idiotic statements that give Christianity a bad name. Notice they accuse him of being a drunkard: how can you get drunk on grape juice?
That being said, I don't drink, nor do I recommend the practice.
Tax collectors were considered by the Jews as traitors; they were Jews using their inside knowledge, working for the Romans.
(Luke 7:35) But wisdom is justified of all her children.
Apparently a similar event involving anointing Jesus with perfume occurred three times...
(Luke 7:36) And one of the Pharisees desired him that he would eat with him. And he went into the Pharisee's house, and sat down to meat.
(Luke 7:37) And, behold, a woman in the city, which was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus sat at meat in the Pharisee's house, brought an alabaster box of ointment [perfume],
This act seems rather brave of this woman; I wonder if Jesus or the disciples coaxed her to do it, perhaps even providing the money or the perfume. This would explain why Judas was offended if it was done using money he had charge over. In fact, one of the purposes might have been for Jesus to test Judas to see if he was more loyal to stealing money or to obedience to Jesus and his purposes.
(Luke 7:38) And stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment.
(Luke 7:39) Now when the Pharisee which had bidden him saw it, he spake within himself, saying, This man, if he were a prophet, would have known who and what manner of woman this is that toucheth him: for she is a sinner.
(Luke 7:40) And Jesus answering said unto him, Simon, I have somewhat to say unto thee. And he saith, Master, say on.
(Luke 7:41) There was a certain creditor which had two debtors: the one owed five hundred  pence [denarii], and the other fifty .
(Luke 7:42) And when they had nothing to pay, he frankly [graciously] forgave them both. Tell me therefore, which of them will love him most?
(Luke 7:43) Simon answered and said, I suppose that he, to whom he forgave most. And he said unto him, Thou hast rightly judged.
Notice that some people are in more need of forgiveness than others. This contradicts the Protestant doctrine of total depravity in which everyone needs forgiveness from God equally because even the tiniest sin, the tiniest character weakness, is as loathsome to God as the worst genocidal tyrant from past history.
(Luke 7:44) And he turned to the woman, and said unto Simon, Seest thou this woman? I entered into thine house, thou gavest me no water for my feet: but she hath washed my feet with tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head.
(Luke 7:45) Thou gavest me no kiss: but this woman since the time I came in hath not ceased to kiss my feet.
(Luke 7:46) My head with oil thou didst not anoint: but this woman hath anointed my feet with ointment.
(Luke 7:47) Wherefore I say unto thee, Her sins, which are many, are forgiven; for she loved much: but to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little.
(Luke 7:48) And he said unto her, Thy sins are forgiven.
(Luke 7:49) And they that sat at meat with him began to say within themselves, Who is this that forgiveth sins also?
(Luke 7:50) And he said to the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace.
Jesus was making a sweep through Galilee, attracting large crowds of followers.
(Luke 8:2) And certain women, which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils [demons],
A steward manages someone else's property or assets or other business; probably Chuza managed Herod's household.
(Luke 8:5) A sower went out to sow his seed: and as he sowed, some fell by the way side [path]; and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air devoured it.
We should wonder who the sower is? We know the seed is the word of God, the word of the kingdom. Later in Luke the 70 are sent to preach the gospel of the kingdom of God. Presumably the sower is anyone who preaches the gospel to the unsaved (the soil).
(Luke 8:6) And some fell upon a rock; and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture.
(Luke 8:7) And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up with it, and choked it.
(Luke 8:8) And other fell on good ground, and sprang up, and bare fruit an hundredfold. And when he had said these things, he cried, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
(Luke 8:9) And his disciples asked him, saying, What might this parable be?
Jesus gave the parable above. The four kinds of soil are four conditions of the heart of one who hears the gospel. The kind of soil affects their long-term response to the gospel and, presumably, whether they end up in the new heavens and new earth. Notice the soil refers to those who hear the gospel, those who are as yet unsaved.
(Luke 8:11) Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God.
Some say the phrase "word of God" is the New Testament. Nonsense! There was no New Testament at the time of Jesus. Likewise for the gospel: it did not yet exist since Jesus had yet to be crucified and resurrected. Just as we comprehend meaning and reality before speaking, so also God's word refers to his thoughts, plan, purpose, truth: all these as part of his divine nature, before he communicates with us.
(Luke 8:12) Those by the way side [path] are they that hear; then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved.
The path: Satan corrupts them. The word can't sprout because the path is walked upon and hardened. Notice they aren't saved because the gospel doesn't even take root; the seeds just lay there, getting destroyed by the foot traffic.
(Luke 8:13) They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in time of temptation fall away.
The rocks: no root, so they fall away. The seedlings try to spout but don't have soil. They appear to believe but are easily tempted. Notice that some people who we might want to call "baby Christians" are in this category. We think they got saved — but they didn't. They believe for a while but then ultimately reject the faith.
(Luke 8:14) And that which fell among thorns are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection.
Among thorns: distracted by worldliness. The word of God is to bear fruit. This fruit consists of (among other things) holiness and a virtuous life. It is not wrong to be involved with the cares and riches and pleasures of this life, only if that is all you do. Similar to the love of money.
(Luke 8:15) But that on the good ground are they, which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience.
Good ground: success, redemption, salvation.
(Luke 8:16) No man, when he hath lighted a candle [lamp], covereth it with a vessel [pot], or putteth it under a bed; but setteth it on a candlestick [lampstand], that they which enter in may see the light.
By putting the lamp on a lampstand more light shines into the room.
The lamp referred to burns oil with a flame and creates smoke and fumes (and carbon monoxide).
If you are trying to hide something you might put it in a clay pot or under your bed.
The purpose of the truth, the gospel, is to be shared with everyone.
(Luke 8:17) For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest [evident]; neither any thing hid [secret], that shall not be known and come abroad [into the open].
At some point in the life history of every human, each deed and thought will be known and judged by God. A key message of the gospel is that everything we do matters to God; our lifestyle has a moral component.
(Luke 8:18) Take heed [care] therefore how ye hear [listen]: for whosoever hath, to him shall be given; and whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he seemeth [thinks] to have.
Hearing the gospel requires action; it makes you accountable for the message. The light of God results in judgment in which those living holy righteous lives pleasing to God will be given more of the same, but in the utopian world of the new heavens and new earth. Those who do not have the light of God operating in their lives will lose everything; merely having this temporary worldly existence is not the ultimate purpose of life.
(Luke 8:19) Then came to him his mother and his brethren, and could not come at him for the press.
(Luke 8:20) And it was told him by certain which said, Thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to see thee.
(Luke 8:21) And he answered and said unto them, My mother and my brethren are these which hear the word of God, and do it.
(Luke 8:22) Now it came to pass on a certain day, that he went into a ship with his disciples: and he said unto them, Let us go over unto the other side of the lake. And they launched forth.
(Luke 8:23) But as they sailed he fell asleep: and there came down a storm of wind on the lake; and they were filled with water, and were in jeopardy.
(Luke 8:24) And they came to him, and awoke him, saying, Master, master, we perish. Then he arose, and rebuked the wind and the raging of the water: and they ceased, and there was a calm.
(Luke 8:25) And he said unto them, Where is your faith? And they being afraid wondered, saying one to another, What manner of man is this! for he commandeth even the winds and water, and they obey him.
(Luke 8:26) And they arrived at the country of the Gadarenes, which is over against [opposite] Galilee.
This is on the SE end of the Sea of Galilee in the region of Decapolis. The region of Galilee is the NW end of the lake and surrounding areas.
(Luke 8:27) And when he went forth to land, there met him out of the city a certain man, which had devils [demons] long time, and ware no clothes, neither abode in any house, but in the tombs.
(Luke 8:28) When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before him, and with a loud voice said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God most high? I beseech thee, torment me not.
(Luke 8:29) (For he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For oftentimes it had caught him: and he was kept bound with chains and in fetters; and he brake the bands, and was driven of the devil into the wilderness.)
(Luke 8:30) And Jesus asked him, saying, What is thy name? And he said, Legion: because many devils [demons] were entered into him.
Notice that the spirits, the living entities, entered into this man's body and took control of his brain and body. This is the same kind of thing that occurs in the Eucharist; the Spirit of Jesus inhabits the bread and wine and mingles with its breadness and wineness. In looking at the bread and wine you see Christ, just as you see a friend when looking at their face; the soul of a person inhabits the physical body. In consuming the Eucharist, the Spirit of Christ mingles with our soul in some way and he blesses us.
(Luke 8:31) And they besought him that he would not command them to go out into the deep.
(Luke 8:32) And there was there an herd of many swine feeding on the mountain: and they besought him that he would suffer them to enter into them. And he suffered them.
(Luke 8:33) Then went the devils [demons] out of the man, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the lake, and were choked.
(Luke 8:34) When they that fed them saw what was done, they fled, and went and told it in the city and in the country.
(Luke 8:35) Then they went out to see what was done; and came to Jesus, and found the man, out of whom the devils [demons] were departed, sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid.
(Luke 8:36) They also which saw it told them by what means he that was possessed of the devils [demons] was healed.
(Luke 8:37) Then the whole multitude of the country of the Gadarenes round about besought him to depart from them; for they were taken with great fear: and he went up into the ship, and returned back again.
(Luke 8:38) Now the man out of whom the devils [demons] were departed besought him that he might be with him: but Jesus sent him away, saying,
(Luke 8:39) Return to thine own house, and shew how great things God hath done unto thee. And he went his way, and published throughout the whole city how great things Jesus had done unto him.
Jesus often asked the people he healed to keep quiet about it, presumably because the publicity would interfere with his ability to minister and teach; and this is exactly what happened in these cases. We should not be surprised that these people often ignored Jesus' request and told people anyway; they were disobedient. But in this case Jesus told the man to tell everybody, which he did. Anyway, all of this makes me wonder if there are times we should keep quiet about our faith? Fundamentalist evangelical Protestants stress that we are to boldly share our faith with everyone we encounter, but this seems wrong to me. Certainly there are some people who seem to be able to do this in a natural manner, but for many, sharing the gospel with others seems forced and uncomfortable. I am not suggesting we don't evangelize, merely noting that there are times when it may do more harm than good.
(Luke 8:40) And it came to pass, that, when Jesus was returned, the people gladly received him: for they were all waiting for him.
(Luke 8:41) And, behold, there came a man named Jairus, and he was a ruler of the synagogue: and he fell down at Jesus' feet, and besought him that he would come into his house:
(Luke 8:42) For he had one only daughter, about twelve years of age, and she lay a dying. But as he went the people thronged him.
(Luke 8:43) And a woman having an issue of blood twelve years, which had spent all her living upon physicians, neither could be healed of any,
(Luke 8:44) Came behind him, and touched the border of his garment: and immediately her issue of blood stanched [stopped].
This woman was ritually impure due to her bleeding yet dared to touch a rabbi; no wonder she attempted the act secretly. In touching someone they would become ritually unclean also, yet she had no regard for that. Perhaps in her desperation she thought it OK to ignore Jewish custom and law, or perhaps she believed Jesus to be above all that, immune to it.
Touching the hem of garment was a common practice for miraculous healing; it is unknown whether the woman was the first and everyone copied her or vice versa or whether it was a long-standing Jewish tradition.
(Luke 8:45) And Jesus said, Who touched me? When all denied, Peter and they that were with him said, Master, the multitude throng thee and press thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me?
(Luke 8:46) And Jesus said, Somebody hath touched me: for I perceive that virtue is gone out of me.
(Luke 8:47) And when the woman saw that she was not hid, she came trembling, and falling down before him, she declared unto him before all the people for what cause she had touched him, and how she was healed immediately.
(Luke 8:48) And he said unto her, Daughter, be of good comfort: thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace.
(Luke 8:49) While he yet spake, there cometh one from the ruler of the synagogue's house, saying to him, Thy daughter is dead; trouble not the Master.
(Luke 8:50) But when Jesus heard it, he answered him, saying, Fear not: believe only, and she shall be made whole.
(Luke 8:51) And when he came into the house, he suffered no man to go in, save Peter, and James, and John, and the father and the mother of the maiden.
(Luke 8:52) And all wept, and bewailed her: but he said, Weep not; she is not dead, but sleepeth.
(Luke 8:53) And they laughed him to scorn, knowing that she was dead.
(Luke 8:54) And he put them all out, and took her by the hand, and called, saying, Maid, arise.
(Luke 8:55) And her spirit came again, and she arose straightway [immediately]: and he commanded to give her meat.
(Luke 8:56) And her parents were astonished: but he charged them that they should tell no man what was done.
(Luke 9:2) And he sent them to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick.
(Luke 9:3) And he said unto them, Take nothing for your journey, neither staves, nor scrip, neither bread, neither money; neither have two coats apiece.
(Luke 9:4) And whatsoever house ye enter into, there abide, and thence depart.
(Luke 9:5) And whosoever will not receive you, when ye go out of that city, shake off the very dust from your feet for a testimony against them.
(Luke 9:6) And they departed, and went through the towns, preaching the gospel, and healing every where.
(Luke 9:7) Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him: and he was perplexed, because that it was said of some, that John was risen from the dead;
(Luke 9:8) And of some, that Elias [Elijah] had appeared; and of others, that one of the old prophets was risen again.
Evidence of the common opinion of the day of Elijah appearing to restore Israel's former glory.
Notice the people believed someone dead and buried could come back to life with their body fully restored. What is this if not bodily resurrection? In Christian teaching this only occurs after sin is destroyed (except those claiming it for the yet-future two witnesses).
(Luke 9:9) And Herod said, John have I beheaded: but who is this, of whom I hear such things? And he desired to see him.
(Luke 9:10) And the apostles, when they were returned, told him all that they had done. And he took them, and went aside privately into a desert place belonging to the city called Bethsaida.
(Luke 9:11) And the people, when they knew it, followed him: and he received them, and spake unto them of the kingdom of God, and healed them that had need of healing.
(Luke 9:12) And when the day began to wear away, then came the twelve, and said unto him, Send the multitude away, that they may go into the towns and country round about, and lodge, and get victuals: for we are here in a desert place.
(Luke 9:13) But he said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they said, We have no more but five loaves and two fishes; except we should go and buy meat for all this people.
(Luke 9:14) For they were about five thousand men. And he said to his disciples, Make them sit down by fifties in a company.
(Luke 9:15) And they did so, and made them all sit down.
(Luke 9:16) Then he took the five loaves and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed them, and brake, and gave to the disciples to set before the multitude.
(Luke 9:17) And they did eat, and were all filled: and there was taken up of fragments that remained to them twelve baskets.
(Luke 9:18) And it came to pass, as he was alone praying, his disciples were with him: and he asked them, saying, Whom say the people that I am?
(Luke 9:19) They answering said, John the Baptist; but some say, Elias [Elijah]; and others say, that one of the old prophets is risen again.
(Luke 9:20) He said unto them, But whom say ye that I am? Peter answering said, The Christ of God.
(Luke 9:21) And he straitly charged them, and commanded them to tell no man that thing;
(Luke 9:22) Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.
(Luke 9:23) And he said to them all, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me.
That Jesus would die by crucifixion.
A shocking teaching; I'm sure the disciples were horrified hearing it. Perhaps they regularly saw people being taken for crucifixion; this, prompting Jesus to comment on it.
How is it possible to take up your cross daily? Of course it isn't. This is why people interpret this image figuratively by making all kinds of life experiences into crosses. But, unfortunately, these small life's troubles are nothing like carrying a cross to your tortuous death via crucifixion. I prefer interpreting this literally: we should daily imagine ourselves carry a cross to our death as a devotional practice. In doing so, our soul experiences this in the spiritual realm and a bonding with Jesus occurs. This is a Catholic and Orthodox idea rooted in a mystical experiential view of Christianity, rejected by many who favor a more intellectual-based Christian experience.
(Luke 9:24) For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: but whosoever will lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it.
(Luke 9:25) For what is a man advantaged, if he gain the whole world, and lose himself, or be cast away?
(Luke 9:26) For whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels.
(Luke 9:27) But I tell you of a truth, there be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God.
Some listening to Jesus would still be alive when the kingdom of God appeared. Likely this doesn't mean at the resurrection of Jesus (or sooner) since this would only be a short time into the future. And the Preterist view that the kingdom of God is established in 70 A.D. is clearly wrong. Probably this refers to the book of Revelation written in 96 A.D. — some present with Jesus in 30 A.D. would still be alive to hear it read in the churches. They would see the kingdom of God in vision.
(Luke 9:28) And it came to pass about an eight days after these sayings, he took Peter and John and James, and went up into a mountain to pray.
Luke says 8 days, Matthew and Mark say 6 days. Why the discrepancy? Perhaps Luke is counting from about the start of a several day long teaching episode? only he mentions it. Or some other counting anomaly, including or excluding the first and last days. What's the distance between 4 and 3? Why, it's 1 of course, except in music where it's 2.
(Luke 9:29) And as he prayed, the fashion of his countenance was altered, and his raiment was white and glistering.
(Luke 9:30) And, behold, there talked with him two men, which were Moses and Elias [Elijah]:
(Luke 9:31) Who appeared in glory, and spake of his decease which he should accomplish at Jerusalem.
Jesus was to die in Jerusalem. We often think of what a happy meeting between the three this was. Were Moses and Elijah happy to hear of Jesus' soon death by torture and crucifixion? Certainly this event (followed by resurrection) would provide for their eternal redemption; they would surely be happy about that. After his death, Jesus would come to Abraham's bosom to preach to them and take them to a happier location in the spiritual realm.
(Luke 9:32) But Peter and they that were with him were heavy with sleep: and when they were awake, they saw his glory, and the two men that stood with him.
(Luke 9:33) And it came to pass, as they departed from him, Peter said unto Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles [tents]; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias [Elijah]: not knowing what he said.
It takes time to construct these tents of branches, the kind constructed on the feast of tabernacles. Peter likely assumed this event would endure for many hours, or at least hoped to prolong it, but it was to be brief.
Peter was always willing to spring into action to help out. Some deride him for this but there must first be action in order for it to be corrected and improved. Those who forever wait to act until they're certain of the right course may have a long lonely wait.
(Luke 9:34) While he thus spake, there came a cloud, and overshadowed them: and they feared as they entered into the cloud.
(Luke 9:35) And there came a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him.
(Luke 9:36) And when the voice was past, Jesus was found alone. And they kept it close, and told no man in those days any of those things which they had seen.
(Luke 9:37) And it came to pass, that on the next day, when they were come down from the hill, much people met him.
(Luke 9:38) And, behold, a man of the company cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee, look upon my son: for he is mine only child.
(Luke 9:39) And, lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly crieth out; and it teareth him that he foameth again, and bruising him hardly departeth from him.
(Luke 9:40) And I besought thy disciples to cast him out; and they could not.
(Luke 9:41) And Jesus answering said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you, and suffer you? Bring thy son hither.
(Luke 9:42) And as he was yet a coming, the devil threw him down, and tare him. And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed the child, and delivered him again to his father.
(Luke 9:43) And they were all amazed at the mighty power of God. But while they wondered every one at all things which Jesus did, he said unto his disciples,
(Luke 9:44) Let these sayings sink down into your ears: for the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men.
Hearing plays a key role in salvation. In the spiritual realm the sounds heard by the physical ears are living, vital messages reaching to the depths of our being. The words of truth come into our physical ears, into our soul via our spiritual ears, then down into the heart to be accepted, or rejected, always considered — we cannot ignore what we hear.
(Luke 9:45) But they understood not this saying, and it was hid from them, that they perceived it not: and they feared to ask him of that saying.
Why were they afraid to ask about it? Perhaps they didn't really believe Jesus would die soon and if he did, their life as disciples of Jesus would be over. Better to ignore the topic and hope it would never happen that way. Better to focus on the ushering in of a political kingdom and their role in it as rulers.
(Luke 9:46) Then there arose a reasoning among them, which of them should be greatest.
They prefer to focus on the soon-to-be political kingdom and their role in it as rulers. Of course, in a kingdom there is competition for the positions of power so they had already started jockeying for these key positions amongst one another. They were actively establishing the court.
(Luke 9:47) And Jesus, perceiving the thought of their heart, took a child, and set him by him,
How did the writer of this verse know Jesus was perceiving their thoughts? Perhaps he assumed it based on what Jesus did. This implies he didn't hear any of their discussions about their role in the kingdom; that Jesus out-of-nowhere knew about it, as if he could read their minds. This would have shocked and embarrassed them. It seems there were many times in which the disciples were alone without the presence of Jesus. He apparently went off by himself often to pray.
Where did Jesus get the child? Perhaps there were women and children travelling with the band of disciples, relatives or spouses and such.
(Luke 9:48) And said unto them, Whosoever shall receive this child in my name receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me receiveth him that sent me: for he that is least among you all, the same shall be great.
(Luke 9:49) And John answered and said, Master, we saw one casting out devils [demons] in thy name; and we forbad him, because he followeth not with us.
We see a trend developing. The apostles decide whether or not such and such a practice of others is to be allowed, and they forbid certain activities and teachings. Later, the bishops do the same — and you end up with strong hierarchical bishops with a division between clergy and laity, and the laity reduced to mere obedience to the bishops. Eventually, great men of God are burned at the stake.
People were quick to mimic Jesus and his works. This explains the many isolated groups of incompletely educated Christians as we find in the book of Acts, people who learned something of Christianity and went off to start communities.
(Luke 9:50) And Jesus said unto him, Forbid him not: for he that is not against us is for us.
You don't have to be one of Jesus' apostles to be on Jesus' side. This argues against the notion that a Church such as the Catholic Church is the institutional center of Christianity; rather, anyone who preaches the true gospel, who is holy, and who protects and nourishes the flock spiritually is on Jesus' side.
(Luke 9:51) And it came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he stedfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem,
(Luke 9:52) And sent messengers before his face: and they went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, to make ready for him.
(Luke 9:53) And they did not receive him, because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem.
(Luke 9:54) And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as Elias [Elijah] did?
(Luke 9:55) But he turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of.
It is hard to imagine anyone would really think Jesus came to destroy people's lives but his disciples thought this very thing. Even though these people rejected him, Jesus still desired the best for them. Perhaps many of them would end up receiving the gospel later when the apostles evangelized in Samaria as described in the book of Acts.
The God of the Old Testament judges nations and destroys things — or so it seems. Actually, this is what Satan does, not God. God merely allows people's unrepented sin to come to its natural conclusion. In sinning we lose God's protective grace allowing Satan to destroy us.
The passage doesn't mention whether or not this man chose to follow Jesus or not. He probably thought he was doing Jesus a favor by offering to follow him as if Jesus needed more high quality followers. Some say he thought Jesus was going to kick out the Romans, but if so, that implied a life of constant warfare which the man likely wasn't interested in if he wasn't even willing to sleep out in the open.
This verse doesn't mention whether Jesus asked the man to follow him or why the man wanted to follow Jesus. Often in the gospels is the mention of people following Jesus, in fact, too numerous to mention.
(Luke 9:58) And Jesus said unto him, Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head.
Animals find places to live amongst the trees, bushes, and grasses. Birds build structures for their eggs. But Jesus became a wandering itinerant, giving up having a regular home. In other words, if you wanted to follow Jesus, you would have to give up your home.
(Luke 9:59) And he said unto another, Follow me. But he said, Lord, suffer [allow] me first to go and bury my father.
(Luke 9:60) Jesus said unto him, Let the dead bury their dead: but go thou and preach the kingdom of God.
This is a harsh statement. Jesus uses the word "dead" with the same meaning as the man does. The man's father had not yet died and he wanted to first collect his inheritance before following Jesus. Jesus refers to this as being dead, clearly a figure of speech.
Followers of Jesus are to preach the kingdom of God.
(Luke 10:1) After these things the LORD appointed other seventy  also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither [to where] he himself would come.
Just as Jesus sent out the 12, he also sent out 70 others. This indicates there were many serious disciples of Jesus; perhaps these were part of the 120 waiting in Jerusalem. I imagine some (many?) of these went off to start Churches.
(Luke 10:2) Therefore said he unto them, The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send forth labourers into his harvest.
(Luke 10:3) Go your ways: behold, I send you forth as lambs among wolves.
(Luke 10:4) Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes: and salute no man by the way.
(Luke 10:5) And into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house.
(Luke 10:6) And if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it: if not, it shall turn to you again.
(Luke 10:7) And in the same house remain, eating and drinking such things as they give: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not from house to house.
(Luke 10:8) And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you, eat such things as are set before you:
(Luke 10:9) And heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come nigh [near] unto you.
The kingdom of God is near.
(Luke 10:10) But into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not, go your ways out into the streets of the same, and say,
(Luke 10:11) Even the very dust of your city, which cleaveth on us, we do wipe off against you: notwithstanding be ye sure of this, that the kingdom of God is come nigh [near] unto you.
(Luke 10:12) But I say unto you, that it shall be more tolerable in that day for Sodom, than for that city.
(Luke 10:13) Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which have been done in you, they had a great while ago repented, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.
(Luke 10:14) But it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment, than for you.
(Luke 10:15) And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to hell.
(Luke 10:16) He that heareth you heareth me; and he that despiseth you despiseth me; and he that despiseth me despiseth him that sent me.
(Luke 10:17) And the seventy  returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils [demons] are subject unto us through thy name.
The reference to devils probably refers to their casting out of demons as Jesus had also done.
They seem to have enjoyed their power. But Jesus puts them in their proper place.
(Luke 10:18) And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven.
A stunning image of Lucifer's fall appearing like a bolt of lightening, powerful and instantaneous.
Two questions: (1) What occurred? (2) When did it occur?
Times when Satan fell, was cast down, was bound, was cast out of heaven...
Here's how I piece all this together.
(Luke 10:19) Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by any means hurt you.
(Luke 10:20) Notwithstanding in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rather rejoice, because your names are written in heaven.
(Luke 10:21) In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight.
(Luke 10:22) All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the Son is, but the Father; and who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him.
(Luke 10:23) And he turned him unto his disciples, and said privately, Blessed are the eyes which see the things that ye see:
(Luke 10:24) For I tell you, that many prophets and kings have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.
Jesus states that many Old Testament characters knew of a Messiah and longed to see him. Likewise, us Christians who know Jesus to be the Messiah and who have put our faith in him; likewise we also long to see him face to face.
(Luke 10:25) And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted [tested] him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?
(Luke 10:26) He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou?
(Luke 10:27) And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself.
(Luke 10:28) And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live.
(Luke 10:29) But he, willing [wanting] to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour?
What a strange man this man was. Everything he says is for some ulterior purpose but yet he correctly identifies the essential message of the 10 commandments.
(Luke 10:30) And Jesus answering said, A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead.
An example of how dangerous travelling was. And they were required to do this yearly.
(Luke 10:31) And by chance there came down a certain priest that way: and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side.
(Luke 10:32) And likewise a Levite, when he was at the place, came and looked on him, and passed by on the other side.
(Luke 10:33) But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and when he saw him, he had compassion on him,
(Luke 10:34) And went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him.
(Luke 10:35) And on the morrow when he departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, and said unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee.
(Luke 10:36) Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves?
(Luke 10:37) And he said, He that shewed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go, and do thou likewise.
(Luke 10:38) Now it came to pass, as they went, that he entered into a certain village: and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house.
(Luke 10:39) And she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his word.
(Luke 10:40) But Martha was cumbered about much serving, and came to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister hath left me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she help me.
(Luke 10:41) And Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things:
(Luke 10:42) But one thing is needful: and Mary hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken away from her.
(Luke 11:1) And it came to pass, that, as he was praying in a certain place, when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples.
Likely the disciples were asking for a liturgical prayer, not for practical advice about prayer technique. John the Baptist taught one too but the disciples wanted another one, from Jesus, their "rabbi". Perhaps each rabbi, each spiritual teacher, provided such for his disciples.
Notice John's prayer is not in the Bible. Instead, the emphasis is on his testimony of Jesus.
(Luke 11:2) And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth.
(Luke 11:3) Give us day by day our daily bread.
(Luke 11:4) And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.
We expect God to forgive our sins because we forgive the debts others have towards us. I think the word "debt" refers to wrongs committed against us by others. Because we forgive others of these, we should expect God to forgive us of our sins. Thus, works have a role in our salvation. But this does not mean we should let the other person off scot-free. We might still demand restitution for the harm they have caused us, or even the acknowledgment from them that they have wronged us. People often harm someone then merely pretend it never happened and they expect everything to be okay.
We are to pray that God would protect us from temptation. But since God doesn't hear our prayers when we are in sin, repentance is a condition for being protected from temptation. For example, a tobacco addict can't expect God to rescue them until they resolve to quit their addiction; only then can God deliver them from the bad habit and the bad effects of it. We can't expect God to protect us from temptation to sin when we are sinning because it is too late. All we can do is pray that we would stop sinning, that he would snap us out of the bad cycle. A person who has never accepted Christ's forgiveness for sin can pray for God to save them and God can lead them to repentance. But this is all getting a bit off topic.
(Luke 11:5) And he said unto them, Which of you shall have a friend, and shall go unto him at midnight, and say unto him, Friend, lend me three loaves;
(Luke 11:6) For a friend of mine in his journey is come to me, and I have nothing to set before him?
(Luke 11:7) And he from within shall answer and say, Trouble me not: the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed; I cannot rise and give thee.
(Luke 11:8) I say unto you, Though he will not rise and give him, because he is his friend, yet because of his importunity he will rise and give him as many as he needeth.
(Luke 11:9) And I say unto you, Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.
(Luke 11:10) For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened.
(Luke 11:11) If a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father, will he give him a stone? or if he ask a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent?
(Luke 11:12) Or if he shall ask an egg, will he offer him a scorpion?
(Luke 11:13) If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children: how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?
(Luke 11:14) And he was casting out a devil, and it was dumb. And it came to pass, when the devil was gone out, the dumb spake; and the people wondered.
(Luke 11:15) But some of them said, He casteth out devils [demons] through Beelzebub the chief of the devils [demons].
(Luke 11:16) And others, tempting him, sought of him a sign from heaven.
(Luke 11:17) But he, knowing their thoughts, said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and a house divided against a house falleth.
(Luke 11:18) If Satan also be divided against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? because ye say that I cast out devils [demons] through Beelzebub.
(Luke 11:19) And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils [demons], by whom do your sons cast them out? therefore shall they be your judges.
(Luke 11:20) But if I with the finger of God cast out devils [demons], no doubt the kingdom of God is come upon you.
(Luke 11:21) When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace:
(Luke 11:22) But when a stronger than he shall come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh from him all his armour wherein he trusted, and divideth his spoils.
(Luke 11:23) He that is not with me is against me: and he that gathereth not with me scattereth.
Talking about Satan, and binding the powers of wickedness and evil, and of casting out evil spirits by the power of evil. Jesus came to earth to destroy Satan's kingdom, to destroy his house. Those spirits not united with Jesus are against him and against God.
(Luke 11:24) When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest; and finding none, he saith, I will return unto my house whence I came out.
(Luke 11:25) And when he cometh, he findeth it swept and garnished.
(Luke 11:26) Then goeth he, and taketh to him seven other spirits more wicked than himself; and they enter in, and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first.
(Luke 11:27) And it came to pass, as he spake these things, a certain woman of the company lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps which thou hast sucked.
(Luke 11:28) But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it.
(Luke 11:29) And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation: they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas [Jonah]the prophet.
(Luke 11:31) The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with the men of this generation, and condemn them: for she came from the utmost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here.
One purpose for the Great White Throne Judgment is for everyone to testify about the good and bad done to them by others. I doubt if we will tattle on each other. Probably God will reveal all the effects of their words and deeds to each person. Perhaps others won't be privy to this info except as it affects them. In someone thinks that God's judgment of a person is unjust, I suppose God will reveal the minimum amount of info about the bad effects of that person's words and deeds to demonstrate his just judgment.
(Luke 11:32) The men of Nineve [Nineveh] shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonas [Jonah]; and, behold, a greater than Jonas [Jonah] is here.
(Luke 11:33) No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth it in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light.
(Luke 11:34) The light of the body is the eye: therefore when thine eye is single, thy whole body also is full of light; but when thine eye is evil, thy body also is full of darkness.
(Luke 11:35) Take heed therefore that the light which is in thee be not darkness.
(Luke 11:36) If thy whole body therefore be full of light, having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light, as when the bright shining of a candle doth give thee light.
(Luke 11:37) And as he spake, a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him: and he went in, and sat down to meat.
(Luke 11:38) And when the Pharisee saw it, he marvelled that he had not first washed before dinner.
(Luke 11:39) And the Lord said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wickedness.
(Luke 11:40) Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without make that which is within also?
(Luke 11:41) But rather give alms of such things as ye have; and, behold, all things are clean unto you.
(Luke 11:42) But woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue and all manner of herbs, and pass over judgment and the love of God: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.
(Luke 11:43) Woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye love the uppermost seats in the synagogues, and greetings in the markets.
(Luke 11:44) Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are as graves which appear not, and the men that walk over them are not aware of them.
(Luke 11:45) Then answered one of the lawyers, and said unto him, Master, thus saying thou reproachest us also.
(Luke 11:46) And he said, Woe unto you also, ye lawyers! for ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers.
(Luke 11:47) Woe unto you! for ye build the sepulchres [tombs] of the prophets, and your fathers killed them.
(Luke 11:48) Truly ye bear witness that ye allow the deeds of your fathers: for they indeed killed them, and ye build their sepulchres [tombs].
(Luke 11:49) Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall slay and persecute:
(Luke 11:50) That the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation;
(Luke 11:52) Woe unto you, lawyers! for ye have taken away the key of knowledge: ye entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering in ye hindered.
(Luke 11:53) And as he said these things unto them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to urge him vehemently, and to provoke him to speak of many things:
(Luke 11:54) Laying wait for [plotting against] him, and seeking to catch something out of his mouth, that they might accuse him.
They think they can beat Jesus through words, reason, and rhetoric. But weirdly, they don't become his followers when they continually lose these verbal battles. They are not committed to truth wherever it may lead, not faith-filled, but, rather, political schemers.
(Luke 12:1) In the mean time [meanwhile], when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude [many thousands] of people, insomuch that they trode [were stepping] one upon another, he began to say unto his disciples first of all, Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.
In other words, the hypocrisy of the Pharisees is mixed throughout the nation, infecting it everywhere. But those who are wary can avoid its bad influences.
(Luke 12:2) For there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; neither hid, that shall not be known.
(Luke 12:3) Therefore whatsoever ye have spoken in darkness shall be heard in the light; and that which ye have spoken in the ear in closets shall be proclaimed upon the housetops.
(Luke 12:4) And I say unto you my friends, Be not afraid of them that kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do.
(Luke 12:5) But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him.
(Luke 12:6) Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings, and not one of them is forgotten before God?
(Luke 12:7) But even the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not therefore: ye are of more value than many sparrows.
(Luke 12:8) Also I say unto you, Whosoever shall confess me before men, him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels of God:
(Luke 12:9) But he that denieth me before men shall be denied before the angels of God.
(Luke 12:10) And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Ghost [Spirit] it shall not be forgiven.
(Luke 12:11) And when they bring you unto the synagogues, and unto magistrates, and powers, take ye no thought how or what thing ye shall answer, or what ye shall say:
(Luke 12:12) For the Holy Ghost [Spirit] shall teach you in the same hour what ye ought to say.
(Luke 12:13) And one of the company said unto him, Master, speak to my brother, that he divide the inheritance with me.
(Luke 12:14) And he said unto him, Man, who made me a judge or a divider over you?
(Luke 12:15) And he said unto them, Take heed, and beware of covetousness: for a man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth.
(Luke 12:16) And he spake a parable unto them, saying, The ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully:
(Luke 12:17) And he thought within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have no room where to bestow my fruits?
(Luke 12:18) And he said, This will I do: I will pull down my barns, and build greater; and there will I bestow all my fruits and my goods.
(Luke 12:19) And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry.
(Luke 12:20) But God said unto him, Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee: then whose shall those things be, which thou hast provided?
(Luke 12:21) So is he that layeth up treasure for himself, and is not rich toward God.
The rich man had enough; there was no need to store more in a bigger barn. Barns only need to be bigger when more goods are passing through due to economic growth. This rich man was hoarding, not contributing to the economy. He wanted to eat, drink, and be merry; presumably to live a life of debauchery.
This man was thinking of himself. We are to think about God. There is no mention of religious practice in the rich man's life. Perhaps he should have given food to the poor.
I don't know if people notice this aspect, but we are to focus on our life after death rather than our life before death. We are to hope for and long for eternity with God in the new heavens and new earth.
(Luke 12:22) And he said unto his disciples, Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat; neither for the body, what ye shall put on.
(Luke 12:23) The life is more than meat, and the body is more than raiment.
(Luke 12:24) Consider the ravens: for they neither sow nor reap; which neither have storehouse nor barn; and God feedeth them: how much more are ye better than the fowls?
(Luke 12:25) And which of you with taking thought can add to his stature one cubit?
(Luke 12:26) If ye then be not able to do that thing which is least, why take ye thought for the rest?
(Luke 12:27) Consider the lilies how they grow: they toil not, they spin not; and yet I say unto you, that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.
(Luke 12:28) If then God so clothe the grass, which is to day in the field, and to morrow is cast into the oven; how much more will he clothe you, O ye of little faith?
(Luke 12:29) And seek not ye what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink, neither be ye of doubtful mind.
(Luke 12:30) For all these things do the nations of the world seek after: and your Father knoweth that ye have need of these things.
(Luke 12:31) But rather seek ye the kingdom of God; and all these things shall be added unto you.
(Luke 12:32) Fear not, little flock; for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.
(Luke 12:33) Sell that ye have, and give alms; provide yourselves bags which wax not old, a treasure in the heavens that faileth not, where no thief approacheth, neither moth corrupteth.
(Luke 12:34) For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.
(Luke 12:35) Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning;
(Luke 12:36) And ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately.
(Luke 12:37) Blessed are those servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching: verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them.
(Luke 12:38) And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants.
(Luke 12:39) And this know, that if the goodman of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through.
(Luke 12:40) Be ye therefore ready also: for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not.
(Luke 12:41) Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all?
(Luke 12:42) And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?
This is the answer to Peter's question from the above verse. Perhaps Peter wanted to know if the disciples were to have a special place in the kingdom, as rulers. He was probably thinking of a soon-to-come kingdom of God as a political kingdom which would overthrow Roman rule. Jesus answers that they are to look after the people with compassion and charity until the Lord returns and that this coming might not be as soon as they think. The apostles are not to think of themselves as rulers over their own nation but, rather, as stewards of Christ's people, of Christ's Church.
Those who rule over the Church are to be faithful and wise, and are to feed the flock. Bishops who are not qualified should be rejected.
(Luke 12:43) Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.
(Luke 12:44) Of a truth I say unto you, that he will make him ruler over all that he hath.
(Luke 12:45) But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to beat the menservants and maidens, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken;
(Luke 12:46) The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him, and at an hour when he is not aware, and will cut him in sunder, and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.
(Luke 12:47) And that servant, which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes.
(Luke 12:48) But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.
(Luke 12:49) I am come to send fire on the earth; and what will I, if it be already kindled?
(Luke 12:50) But I have a baptism to be baptized with; and how am I straitened till it be accomplished!
(Luke 12:51) Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division:
(Luke 12:52) For from henceforth there shall be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three.
(Luke 12:53) The father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother; the mother in law against her daughter in law, and the daughter in law against her mother in law.
(Luke 12:54) And he said also to the people, When ye see a cloud rise out of the west, straightway [immediately] ye say, There cometh a shower; and so it is.
(Luke 12:55) And when ye see the south wind blow, ye say, There will be heat; and it cometh to pass.
(Luke 12:56) Ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky and of the earth; but how is it that ye do not discern this time?
(Luke 12:57) Yea, and why even of yourselves judge ye not what is right?
(Luke 12:58) When thou goest with thine adversary to the magistrate, as thou art in the way, give diligence that thou mayest be delivered from him; lest he hale thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and the officer cast thee into prison.
(Luke 12:59) I tell thee, thou shalt not depart thence, till thou hast paid the very last mite.
(Luke 13:1) There were present at that season some that told him of the Galilaeans [Galileans], whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices.
Pilate was a vicious man.
(Luke 13:2) And Jesus answering said unto them, Suppose ye that these Galilaeans [Galileans] were sinners above all the Galilaeans [Galileans], because they suffered such things?
Jesus refers to the idea that all bad things happen because we sin. This is false. Certainly doing foolish things can have bad results. And sin always has consequences: upon the sinner, and often upon others as well. But experiencing bad things in this life doesn't necessarily mean you are getting judged by God for your sin. It's common to experience bad things because of other people's sin or the influences of the wicked spirits in the spiritual realm.
(Luke 13:3) I tell you, Nay: but, except [unless] ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.
An odd verse. Jesus says these Galileans who were killed by Pilate were not killed because of their sin. Then Jesus tells his listeners to not sin or they will suffer the same fate. Probably he means that if you die in unrepented sin, you will be judged when you die. Jesus had been speaking about death and judgment and the powers of darkness who can destroy us.
(Luke 13:4) Or those eighteen , upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and slew [killed] them, think ye that they were sinners above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem?
From the early part of the Old Testament we see that the Israelites had the idea that bad things happened to people because they were doing bad things; that God punished people for their wrongdoings. Later, with the book of Job and the prophets we see this idea questioned. In some cases, people experience misfortune precisely because they are good; certainly this was the case with the Christian martyrs who died gruesome deaths rather than renounce their faith.
Of course, sometimes people's sin does result in bad things happening. One kind of example is a drug addict whose addiction results in poor health and early death.
Notice Jesus mentions those living in Jerusalem. It's not just the Galileans who must be concerned about God's judgment. Some might think they are morally superior to the Galileans and so different rules apply. Not so. The effects of sin are universal; no one is immune.
(Luke 13:5) I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.
During the seige of Jerusalem by the Romans, towers fell on Jews and killed them. If they had repented, the various factions of revolutionaries would not have provoked the Romans to invade and destroy the city and temple.
An odd verse. Jesus says those who were killed by the falling tower were not killed because of their sin. Then Jesus tells his listeners to not sin or they will suffer the same fate. Probably he means that if you die in unrepented sin, you will be judged when you die. Jesus had been speaking about death and judgment and the powers of darkness who can destroy us.
(Luke 13:6) He spake also this parable; A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none.
(Luke 13:7) Then said he unto the dresser of his vineyard, Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground?
(Luke 13:8) And he answering said unto him, Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig about it, and dung it:
(Luke 13:9) And if it bear fruit, well: and if not, then after that thou shalt cut it down.
(Luke 13:10) And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath.
(Luke 13:11) And, behold, there was a woman which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen  years, and was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up herself.
(Luke 13:12) And when Jesus saw her, he called her to him, and said unto her, Woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity.
(Luke 13:13) And he laid his hands on her: and immediately she was made straight, and glorified God.
(Luke 13:14) And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said unto the people, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day.
(Luke 13:15) The Lord then answered him, and said, Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass [donkey] from the stall, and lead him away to watering?
(Luke 13:16) And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen  years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?
She was bound by Satan, not God. Some think if bad things happen to you it's because of your sin. Not so. Certainly doing foolish things can have bad results. And sin always has consequences: upon the sinner, and often upon others as well. But experiencing bad things in this life doesn't necessarily mean you are getting judged by God for your sin. It's common to experience bad things because of other people's sin or the influences of the wicked spirits in the spiritual realm.
(Luke 13:17) And when he had said these things, all his adversaries were ashamed: and all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him.
(Luke 13:18) Then said he, Unto what is the kingdom of God like? and whereunto shall I resemble it?
(Luke 13:19) It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and cast into his garden; and it grew, and waxed a great tree; and the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it.
(Luke 13:20) And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God?
(Luke 13:21) It is like leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.
(Luke 13:22) And he went through the cities and villages, teaching, and journeying toward Jerusalem.
(Luke 13:23) Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that be saved? And he said unto them,
Apparently only few will be saved because many will not find the narrow gate. Perhaps Jesus is referring to only those who are insincere in asking questions of him, trying to trick or trap him; only a few of these will be saved.
(Luke 13:24) Strive to enter in at the strait [narrow] gate: for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able.
Even though Jesus commands we must work (striving is a work) to find salvation, fundamentalist evangelical Protestant teachers, when commenting on this verse, typically say works have no role in salvation. Weird.
The lifestyle of a follower of Jesus is very constrained, avoiding unholy influences and people.
(Luke 13:25) When once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us; and he shall answer and say unto you, I know you not whence ye are:
(Luke 13:26) Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our streets.
(Luke 13:27) But he shall say, I tell you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity.
(Luke 13:28) There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust out.
(Luke 13:29) And they shall come from the east, and from the west, and from the north, and from the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God.
(Luke 13:30) And, behold, there are last which shall be first, and there are first which shall be last.
(Luke 13:31) The same day there came certain of the Pharisees, saying unto him, Get thee out, and depart hence: for Herod will kill thee.
(Luke 13:32) And he said unto them, Go ye, and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils [demons], and I do cures to day and to morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.
(Luke 13:33) Nevertheless I must walk to day, and to morrow, and the day following: for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem.
(Luke 13:34) O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings, and ye would not!
(Luke 13:35) Behold, your house is left unto you desolate: and verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.
(Luke 14:1) And it came to pass, as he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him.
The religious leaders watched Jesus to find something to criticize; Jesus watched the religious leaders to find something to commend but, rather, had to correct them. Each operated from within their perspective, their worldview. We should model our worldview after the teachings of Jesus.
(Luke 14:2) And, behold, there was a certain man before him which had the dropsy [swelling].
It seems this man was standing outside as they were entering.
(Luke 14:3) And Jesus answering spake unto the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath day?
The lawyers referred to here are those religious leaders who are experts in the Mosaic law.
(Luke 14:4) And they held their peace. And he took him, and healed him, and let him go;
(Luke 14:5) And answered them, saying, Which of you shall have an ass [donkey] or an ox fallen into a pit, and will not straightway [immediately] pull him out on the sabbath day?
It is shocking to see that these religious leaders have more concern for their farm animals than the people they have charge over.
(Luke 14:6) And they could not answer him again to these things.
(Luke 14:7) And he put forth a parable to those which were bidden [invited], when he marked how they chose out the chief rooms [places of honor]; saying unto them,
A gathering of religious celebrities, each seeking out the place of honor for himself. As everyone entered the house and took their places, Jesus observed.
(Luke 14:8) When thou art bidden of [invited by] any man to a wedding, sit not down in the highest room [place of honor]; lest a more honourable man than thou be bidden of [invited by] him;
(Luke 14:9) And he that bade [invited] thee and him come and say to thee, Give this man place; and thou begin with shame to take the lowest room [least important place].
(Luke 14:10) But when thou art bidden [invited], go and sit down in the lowest room [place]; that when he that bade [invited] thee cometh, he may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have worship [honor] in the presence of them that sit at meat [meal] with thee.
(Luke 14:11) For whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased [humbled]; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.
(Luke 14:12) Then said he also to him that bade [invited] him, When thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, neither thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbours; lest they also bid [invite] thee again, and a recompence [repaid] be made thee.
Finally, Jesus remarks on the guest list; the religious leaders segregate themselves from the people at large, from those they have charge over. They are to serve these in love but prefer, rather, to serve themselves.
(Luke 14:13) But when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed [crippled], the lame, the blind:
(Luke 14:14) And thou shalt be blessed; for they cannot recompense [repay] thee: for thou shalt be recompensed [repaid] at the resurrection of the just [righteous].
Some teach that, at the general resurrection of believers, there are rewards given for acts of charity and love performed — in other words, we are rewarded for our works. But perhaps Jesus is merely saying that in being humble, these Pharisees will merit redemption, and in being egotistical they will not. In other words, true love of God goes along with a truly loving heart. Someone who does not love his neighbor does not truly love God. Apparently, these class and social divisions constitute non-love of neighbor. It seems to me that the strong division of clergy and laity in the historical catholic church was a bad development and should be reversed.
(Luke 14:15) And when one of them that sat at meat [meal] with him heard these things, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread [food] in the kingdom of God.
After hearing these scathing criticisms from Jesus, this man seems to be saying that the people at large are not worthy enough to be a part of the kingdom of God, that they will not participate in meals in the kingdom of God, so why should they be allowed to join with these gatherings of the redeemed in this world? In other words, the religious leaders have rejected those they have charge over as being worthy of God's blessing.
I wonder what this man's conception was of the kingdom of God? Jesus teaches about what is needed to enter in to the kingdom of God. Presumably he was referring to the new heavens and new earth. Many who are invited refuse to enter because doing so requires them to shift their focus off of the material concerns of the moment.
(Luke 14:16) Then said he unto him, A certain man made a great supper, and bade [invited] many:
(Luke 14:17) And sent his servant at supper time to say to them that were bidden [invited], Come; for all things are now ready.
(Luke 14:18) And they all with one consent began to make excuse. The first said unto him, I have bought a piece of ground, and I must needs go and see it: I pray thee have me excused.
(Luke 14:19) And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove them: I pray thee have me excused.
(Luke 14:20) And another said, I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come.
(Luke 14:21) So that servant came, and shewed his lord these things. Then the master of the house being angry said to his servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and the maimed [crippled], and the halt [limping], and the blind.
(Luke 14:22) And the servant said, Lord, it is done as thou hast commanded, and yet there is room.
(Luke 14:23) And the lord said unto the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled.
(Luke 14:24) For I say unto you, That none of those men which were bidden [invited] shall taste of my supper.
In other words, these religious leaders who are so concerned with sitting in the place of honor instead of healing and serving the people, these are not truly of the redeemed because their heart does not love God; they love themselves and their social position rather than God.
(Luke 14:25) And there went great multitudes with him: and he turned, and said unto them,
(Luke 14:26) If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple.
(Luke 14:27) And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after me, cannot be my disciple.
(Luke 14:28) For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it?
(Luke 14:29) Lest haply, after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that behold it begin to mock him,
(Luke 14:30) Saying, This man began to build, and was not able to finish.
(Luke 14:31) Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand?
(Luke 14:32) Or else, while the other is yet a great way off, he sendeth an ambassage, and desireth conditions of peace.
(Luke 14:33) So likewise, whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple.
(Luke 14:34) Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be seasoned?
(Luke 14:35) It is neither fit for the land, nor yet for the dunghill; but men cast it out. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
(Luke 15:1) Then drew near unto him all the publicans and sinners for to hear him.
(Luke 15:2) And the Pharisees and scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them.
(Luke 15:3) And he spake this parable unto them, saying,
The point of this parable is to show a practical real-life example of God's love even for those rejected by society, for the 1%.
(Luke 15:4) What man of you, having an hundred  sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine  in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it?
Each and every sheep has value; he cannot afford to lose even one. Presumably someone takes care of the other 99 in his absence; what good is it to find the one but lose the 99?
(Luke 15:5) And when he hath found it, he layeth it on his shoulders, rejoicing.
A very tiny sheep; adults weigh 100 to 350 pounds but perhaps they were smaller back then. Probably a lamb but there is a different Greek word for lamb.
(Luke 15:6) And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends and neighbours, saying unto them, Rejoice with me; for I have found my sheep which was lost.
Notice he talks about his job thinking people find this subject fascinating. People don't find it fascinating when I talk about my job.
People usually mix metaphors here thinking we are both the sheep and the friends and neighbors of the shepherd. But if the shepherd represents Christ, his friends and neighbors are not sheep but fellow non-sheep such as Christ is. This is an example of why I prefer to interpret strictly literally; the shepherd is a shepherd, his friends are friends, the sheep are sheep. The next verse explains the meaning or the symbolism or the application. Notice there is no mention that Christ is the shepherd or that humans are the sheep. All that is intended is to emphasize God's love for everyone who has repented of their sin.
(Luke 15:7) I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine  just persons, which need no repentance.
Jesus finds the sinner who has wandered away into spiritual danger. Notice the sheep does nothing to save itself; the shepherd carries it back to safety. Does this mean the sinner does nothing to become redeemed? This parable is talking only about the joy of God in redeeming a sinner. This verse specifically mentions the sinner is saved by repenting of their sins; this is not "saved by faith alone" (sola fide).
The word "heaven" probably refers to God and any other spiritual beings involved with the person in question.
Notice only 1% need to repent; the other 99% are already safe. Don't complain to me about it; this verse explicitly states this, even going out of the way to do so. This fact demolishes the fundamentalist evangelical Protestant doctrine of total depravity.
Notice the not-so-subtle hint that the scribes and Pharisees Jesus is specifically speaking to need to repent for their sin of condemning those social outcasts who God loves. Those come to Jesus in love while the scribes and Pharisees want only to trap him.
(Luke 15:8) Either what woman having ten pieces of silver, if she lose one piece, doth not light a candle, and sweep the house, and seek diligently till she find it?
(Luke 15:9) And when she hath found it, she calleth her friends and her neighbours together, saying, Rejoice with me; for I have found the piece which I had lost.
(Luke 15:10) Likewise, I say unto you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth.
(Luke 15:11) And he said, A certain man had two sons:
(Luke 15:12) And the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living.
If the father truly loved his son he would have ensured he was ready for receiving this inheritance, having a business plan leading to success. Perhaps the son was discontent and would leave anyway. I wonder if the father was neglectful of both sons since both felt alienated? Anyway, the father had no obligation to give anything to his son until death.
(Luke 15:13) And not many days after the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance [belongings] with riotous [immoral] living.
(Luke 15:14) And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land; and he began to be in want.
(Luke 15:15) And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine [pigs].
(Luke 15:16) And he would fain [rather] have filled his belly with the husks that the swine [pigs] did eat: and no man gave unto him.
(Luke 15:17) And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger!
(Luke 15:18) I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee,
He doesn't refer to God but only to the spiritual realm. It is uncertain whether he ever repented before God or was merely responding to a desperate situation.
(Luke 15:19) And am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants.
(Luke 15:20) And he arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him.
Perhaps this affection of the father would wain quickly and both sons would feel distant from their father.
(Luke 15:21) And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son.
(Luke 15:22) But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:
There is no mention of how the younger son supported himself after this, whether he became like a servant.
(Luke 15:23) And bring hither [here] the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry [celebrate]:
(Luke 15:24) For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry [celebrate].
(Luke 15:25) Now his elder son was in the field: and as he came and drew nigh [near] to the house, he heard music and dancing.
Who performed the music? And who was dancing? Were there other brothers with their families as well as sisters?
(Luke 15:26) And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant.
(Luke 15:27) And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and sound.
(Luke 15:28) And he was angry, and would not go in: therefore came his father out, and intreated [pleaded with] him.
The firstborn son did not care much for his brother. This was not a happy close family.
Apparently this celebration occurred indoors. Were these rich city people having a large stone public room like the upper room used by Jesus and the disciples? But it seems to be a rural setting with fields and animals; maybe there was a large tent.
Did the brother peer inside, noticed by all, but refuse to come in when invited? He was publicly showing his disapproval so the father came out to persuade him to join them. I suppose he refused and finally stomped off in a huff back to his own tent, trying to spoil the celebration for everyone else and, in the process, alienating himself from them. Was his children and family forced to stay away also?
(Luke 15:29) And he answering said to his father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy commandment: and yet thou never gavest me a kid [young goat], that I might make merry [celebrate] with my friends:
It seems the father had no great love for his firstborn son. Perhaps this is due to the son's coldness in thinking of himself as a servant, or perhaps the father was neglectful, never spending quality time.
The firstborn son mentions a goat whereas it was a calf, probably to highlight the injustice, how the father never did anything for him, not even a goat. Or perhaps he was hoping the father would prepare feasts for him in the future and he preferred goat meat.
(Luke 15:30) But as soon as this thy son was come, which hath devoured thy living [wealth] with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf.
How did he know what his brother had done while away? Maybe a servant accompanied the father when he first greeted his son. If so, it was rude of the servant and brother to divulge this gossip and perhaps the servant was later punished for it. Or maybe the younger son had a habit of immoral living so the firstborn merely assumed it.
This verse highlights why the father should not have granted the younger son's request for the early payment of his inheritance: it takes money to make money and, therefore, this whole transaction decreased the father's wealth and of everyone under his care.
(Luke 15:31) And he said unto him, Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine.
The father had already given the younger son his portion of the inheritance; all the rest now belonged to the older son. In being forgiven by his father, the younger son was not "undoing" his mistake; the money was irretrievably squandered.
It is like this when we sin, repent, and are forgiven by God. The effects of our sinful activities are not magically erased. We should strive to make amends for them as best we can, but it is not always possible to undo the damage.
What if the firstborn now demanded his portion of the inheritance like his brother did? The father would be forced to say no since this would deplete everything. Thus, in giving it to the younger son he showed extreme favoritism.
(Luke 15:32) It was meet [proper] that we should make merry [celebrate], and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.
The point of this parable: God is happy when his wayward children repent and return to him. This message has greater impact after the negative response by the irascible firstborn son.
Either the steward was incompetent or he was cheating his master, perhaps spending his master's money on himself.
(Luke 16:2) And he called him, and said unto him, How is it that I hear this of thee? give an account of thy stewardship; for thou mayest be no longer steward.
(Luke 16:3) Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord taketh away from me the stewardship: I cannot dig; to beg I am ashamed.
Apparently the steward had no savings. That was certainly not wise.
(Luke 16:4) I am resolved what to do, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses.
(Luke 16:5) So he called every one of his lord's debtors unto him, and said unto the first, How much owest thou unto my lord?
Notice his loyalty is no longer to his lord; it probably never was, which is why he got fired.
(Luke 16:6) And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty.
(Luke 16:7) Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, An hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and write fourscore.
(Luke 16:8) And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.
It's hard to imagine why the master would commend his former steward for doing more of the same kind of thing that got him fired in the first place. Just as the steward was shrewd in planning for his future, he was also shrewd in fooling his master for so long; of taking advantage of his position to enrich himself.
(Luke 16:9) And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations.
(Luke 16:10) He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much: and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much.
(Luke 16:11) If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches?
(Luke 16:12) And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own?
(Luke 16:13) No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.
(Luke 16:14) And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things: and they derided him.
(Luke 16:15) And he said unto them, Ye are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God.
(Luke 16:16) The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it.
(Luke 16:17) And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail.
(Luke 16:18) Whosoever putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery: and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband committeth adultery.
I've adopted a strictly literal interpretation of the Bible but clearly there are cases of figurative, fictional stories. The parables of Jesus are in this category. Notice that non-literal stories lead to confusion, not clarity and understanding. For example, we might conclude that the parable of Lazarus and the rich man teaches that material prosperity leads to hell and that poor homeless people go to heaven.
One reason people say this is not a parable is because it names someone and parables never have names (I wonder how they know this)? But the following parable has a name in it — Satan...
Then Jesus said to them, Don't you understand this parable? . . . The farmer sows the word. Some people are like seed along the path, where the word is sown. As soon as they hear it, Satan comes and takes away the word that was sown in them. (Mark 4:13-15)
(Luke 16:19) There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day:
(Luke 16:20) And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores,
(Luke 16:21) And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores.
The poor hungry beggar thought about life for the rich man and how he ate. He imagined watching him eating and himself under his table like a dog. He probably noticed that certain dogs got to eat scraps and crumbs but he didn't; the dogs had it better then him and mocked him for this by licking his sores. He was too weak to push them away, probably many dogs swarming him.
(Luke 16:22) And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried;
(Luke 16:23) And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.
(Luke 16:24) And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.
(Luke 16:25) But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented.
The rich man was not in hell because of living a life of luxury.
(Luke 16:26) And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence.
(Luke 16:27) Then he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house:
(Luke 16:28) For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment.
(Luke 16:29) Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.
The Bible contains the teaching necessary for eternal life for those who will hear it and believe it and act on it in faith.
Even though the Old Testament is largely fiction, Jesus appears to have believed it as historically accurate. This says something about the way the soul of Jesus was constrained to the physical body and brain, just as is ours. And the visions and wisdom of Jesus were of the same nature as those of human visionaries and prophets and wise men.
(Luke 16:30) And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent.
(Luke 16:31) And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.
They won't believe Jesus rose from the dead.
(Luke 17:1) Then said he unto the disciples, It is impossible but that offences will come: but woe unto him, through whom they come!
(Luke 17:2) It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than that he should offend one of these little ones.
(Luke 17:3) Take heed to yourselves: If thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him.
(Luke 17:4) And if he trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times in a day turn again to thee, saying, I repent; thou shalt forgive him.
(Luke 17:5) And the apostles said unto the Lord, Increase our faith.
(Luke 17:6) And the Lord said, If ye had faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye might say unto this sycamine tree, Be thou plucked up by the root, and be thou planted in the sea; and it should obey you.
(Luke 17:7) But which of you, having a servant plowing or feeding cattle, will say unto him by and by, when he is come from the field, Go and sit down to meat?
(Luke 17:8) And will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself, and serve me, till I have eaten and drunken; and afterward thou shalt eat and drink?
(Luke 17:9) Doth he thank that servant because he did the things that were commanded him? I trow not.
(Luke 17:10) So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants: we have done that which was our duty to do.
(Luke 17:11) And it came to pass, as he went to Jerusalem, that he passed through the midst of Samaria and Galilee.
(Luke 17:12) And as he entered into a certain village, there met him ten men that were lepers, which stood afar off:
(Luke 17:13) And they lifted up their voices, and said, Jesus, Master, have mercy on us.
(Luke 17:14) And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go shew yourselves unto the priests. And it came to pass, that, as they went, they were cleansed.
(Luke 17:15) And one of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, and with a loud voice glorified God,
(Luke 17:16) And fell down on his face at his feet, giving him thanks: and he was a Samaritan.
(Luke 17:17) And Jesus answering said, Were there not ten cleansed? but where are the nine?
(Luke 17:18) There are not found that returned to give glory to God, save this stranger.
(Luke 17:19) And he said unto him, Arise, go thy way: thy faith hath made thee whole.
(Luke 17:20) And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God cometh not with observation:
(Luke 17:21) Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you.
(Luke 17:22) And he said unto the disciples, The days will come, when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, and ye shall not see it.
(Luke 17:23) And they shall say to you, See here; or, see there: go not after them, nor follow them.
(Luke 17:24) For as the lightning, that lighteneth out of the one part under heaven, shineth unto the other part under heaven; so shall also the Son of man be in his day.
(Luke 17:25) But first must he suffer many things, and be rejected of this generation.
(Luke 17:26) And as it was in the days of Noe [Noah], so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man.
(Luke 17:27) They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noe [Noah] entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all.
(Luke 17:28) Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded;
(Luke 17:29) But the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all.
Fundamentalist evangelical Protestants assume that if Jesus refers to a story this proves it must be a historically true account. I don't see why. You can use a fictional story to illustrate your point just as well as a factual account. The key is in the similarities of the story with the account. Anyway, I'm not insisting the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is fictional.
(Luke 17:30) Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed.
(Luke 17:31) In that day, he which shall be upon the housetop, and his stuff in the house, let him not come down to take it away: and he that is in the field, let him likewise not return back.
Notice they are not to return if they forgot something or some other reason. Immediately after, verse 32 mentions Lot's wife.
(Luke 17:32) Remember Lot's wife.
(Luke 17:33) Whosoever shall seek to save his life shall lose it; and whosoever shall lose his life shall preserve it.
(Luke 17:34) I tell you, in that night there shall be two men in one bed; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left.
(Luke 17:35) Two women shall be grinding together; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
(Luke 17:36) Two men shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
(Luke 17:37) And they answered and said unto him, Where, Lord? And he said unto them, Wheresoever the body is, thither will the eagles be gathered together.
(Luke 18:1) And he spake a parable unto them to this end, that men ought always to pray, and not to faint;
(Luke 18:2) Saying, There was in a city a judge, which feared not God, neither regarded man:
(Luke 18:3) And there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him, saying, Avenge me of mine adversary.
(Luke 18:4) And he would not for a while: but afterward he said within himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man;
(Luke 18:5) Yet because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge her, lest by her continual coming she weary me.
(Luke 18:6) And the Lord said, Hear what the unjust judge saith.
(Luke 18:7) And shall not God avenge his own elect, which cry day and night unto him, though he bear long with them?
(Luke 18:8) I tell you that he will avenge them speedily. Nevertheless when the Son of man cometh, shall he find faith on the earth?
(Luke 18:9) And he spake this parable unto certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others:
(Luke 18:10) Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican.
(Luke 18:11) The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican.
(Luke 18:12) I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that I possess.
Fundamentalist evangelical Protestants strongly emphasize rigorous tithing but Jesus criticizes it, at last in the context of using it to prove your devotion to Christ.
(Luke 18:13) And the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful to me a sinner.
(Luke 18:14) I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.
(Luke 18:15) And they brought unto him also infants, that he would touch them: but when his disciples saw it, they rebuked them.
(Luke 18:16) But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Suffer [allow] little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God.
(Luke 18:17) Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child shall in no wise enter therein.
(Luke 18:18) And a certain ruler asked him, saying, Good Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?
(Luke 18:19) And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? none is good, save one, that is, God.
(Luke 18:20) Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Honour thy father and thy mother.
(Luke 18:21) And he said, All these have I kept from my youth up.
(Luke 18:22) Now when Jesus heard these things, he said unto him, Yet lackest thou one thing: sell all that thou hast, and distribute unto the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, follow me.
(Luke 18:23) And when he heard this, he was very sorrowful: for he was very rich.
(Luke 18:24) And when Jesus saw that he was very sorrowful, he said, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God!
(Luke 18:25) For it is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.
(Luke 18:26) And they that heard it said, Who then can be saved?
(Luke 18:27) And he said, The things which are impossible with men are possible with God.
(Luke 18:28) Then Peter said, Lo, we have left all, and followed thee.
(Luke 18:29) And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or parents, or brethren, or wife, or children, for the kingdom of God's sake,
(Luke 18:30) Who shall not receive manifold more in this present time, and in the world to come life everlasting.
(Luke 18:31) Then he took unto him the twelve, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished.
(Luke 18:32) For he shall be delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and spitefully entreated, and spitted on:
(Luke 18:33) And they shall scourge him, and put him to death: and the third day he shall rise again.
(Luke 18:34) And they understood none of these things: and this saying was hid from them, neither knew they the things which were spoken.
(Luke 18:35) And it came to pass, that as he was come nigh [near] unto Jericho, a certain blind man sat by the way side begging:
(Luke 18:36) And hearing the multitude pass by, he asked what it meant.
(Luke 18:37) And they told him, that Jesus of Nazareth passeth by.
(Luke 18:38) And he cried, saying, Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me.
(Luke 18:39) And they which went before rebuked him, that he should hold his peace: but he cried so much the more, Thou son of David, have mercy on me.
(Luke 18:40) And Jesus stood, and commanded him to be brought unto him: and when he was come near, he asked him,
(Luke 18:41) Saying, What wilt thou that I shall do unto thee? And he said, Lord, that I may receive my sight.
(Luke 18:42) And Jesus said unto him, Receive thy sight: thy faith hath saved thee.
(Luke 18:43) And immediately he received his sight, and followed him, glorifying God: and all the people, when they saw it, gave praise unto God.
(Luke 19:1) And Jesus entered and passed through Jericho.
(Luke 19:2) And, behold, there was a man named Zacchaeus, which was the chief among the publicans, and he was rich.
(Luke 19:3) And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and could not for the press, because he was little of stature.
(Luke 19:4) And he ran before, and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see him: for he was to pass that way.
(Luke 19:5) And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and saw him, and said unto him, Zacchaeus, make haste, and come down; for to day I must abide at thy house.
(Luke 19:6) And he made haste, and came down, and received him joyfully.
(Luke 19:7) And when they saw it, they all murmured, saying, That he was gone to be guest with a man that is a sinner.
(Luke 19:8) And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold.
(Luke 19:9) And Jesus said unto him, This day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch as he also is a son of Abraham.
(Luke 19:10) For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost.
(Luke 19:11) And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh [near] to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear.
(Luke 19:12) He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return.
(Luke 19:13) And he called his ten servants, and delivered them ten pounds, and said unto them, Occupy till I come.
(Luke 19:14) But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us.
(Luke 19:15) And it came to pass, that when he was returned, having received the kingdom, then he commanded these servants to be called unto him, to whom he had given the money, that he might know how much every man had gained by trading.
(Luke 19:16) Then came the first, saying, Lord, thy pound hath gained ten pounds.
(Luke 19:17) And he said unto him, Well, thou good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities.
(Luke 19:18) And the second came, saying, Lord, thy pound hath gained five pounds.
(Luke 19:19) And he said likewise to him, Be thou also over five cities.
(Luke 19:20) And another came, saying, Lord, behold, here is thy pound, which I have kept laid up in a napkin:
(Luke 19:21) For I feared thee, because thou art an austere man: thou takest up that thou layedst not down, and reapest that thou didst not sow.
(Luke 19:22) And he saith unto him, Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee, thou wicked servant. Thou knewest that I was an austere man, taking up that I laid not down, and reaping that I did not sow:
(Luke 19:23) Wherefore then gavest not thou my money into the bank, that at my coming I might have required mine own with usury?
(Luke 19:24) And he said unto them that stood by, Take from him the pound, and give it to him that hath ten pounds.
(Luke 19:25) (And they said unto him, Lord, he hath ten pounds.)
(Luke 19:26) For I say unto you, That unto every one which hath shall be given; and from him that hath not, even that he hath shall be taken away from him.
(Luke 19:27) But those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me.
I am uncomfortable with stories such as this in which Jesus describes graphic violence by the protagonist, the main character, the good guy.
(Luke 19:28) And when he had thus spoken, he went before, ascending up to Jerusalem.
(Luke 19:29) And it came to pass, when he was come nigh [near] to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount called the mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples,
(Luke 19:30) Saying, Go ye into the village over against you; in the which at your entering ye shall find a colt tied, whereon yet never man sat: loose him, and bring him hither.
(Luke 19:31) And if any man ask you, Why do ye loose him? thus shall ye say unto him, Because the Lord hath need of him.
(Luke 19:32) And they that were sent went their way, and found even as he had said unto them.
(Luke 19:33) And as they were loosing the colt, the owners thereof said unto them, Why loose ye the colt?
(Luke 19:34) And they said, The Lord hath need of him.
(Luke 19:35) And they brought him to Jesus: and they cast their garments upon the colt, and they set Jesus thereon.
(Luke 19:36) And as he went, they spread their clothes in the way.
(Luke 19:37) And when he was come nigh [near], even now at the descent of the mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works that they had seen;
(Luke 19:38) Saying, Blessed be the King that cometh in the name of the Lord: peace in heaven, and glory in the highest.
(Luke 19:39) And some of the Pharisees from among the multitude said unto him, Master, rebuke thy disciples.
(Luke 19:40) And he answered and said unto them, I tell you that, if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out.
(Luke 19:41) And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it,
(Luke 19:42) Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes.
(Luke 19:43) For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,
(Luke 19:44) And shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.
This verse provides evidence the gospel of Luke was written before the temple was destroyed in 70 A.D. Otherwise we should expect mention of the stones being taken apart by the Romans retrieving the melted gold.
(Luke 19:45) And he went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold therein, and them that bought;
(Luke 19:46) Saying unto them, It is written, My house is the house of prayer: but ye have made it a den of thieves.
(Luke 19:47) And he taught daily in the temple. But the chief priests and the scribes and the chief of the people sought to destroy him,
(Luke 19:48) And could not find what they might do: for all the people were very attentive to hear him.
(Luke 20:1) And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came upon him with the elders,
(Luke 20:2) And spake unto him, saying, Tell us, by what authority doest thou these things? or who is he that gave thee this authority?
(Luke 20:3) And he answered and said unto them, I will also ask you one thing; and answer me:
(Luke 20:4) The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men?
(Luke 20:5) And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then believed ye him not?
(Luke 20:6) But and if we say, Of men; all the people will stone us: for they be persuaded that John was a prophet.
Stoning is a form of execution giving the people at large, (those throwing stones), power. They agree to the execution by participating and, in cases such as here, initiate it as jury and judge. Of course this kind of mob violence rarely has good effect with rabble-rousers getting everyone all stirred up.
It is inconceivable the people would have an uprising and stone the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders over this. There is something wrong with this story; probably it's fiction, at least the part about them being afraid of being stoned. Perhaps all they were really afraid of is the people would murmur against them, but I doubt they did this either. After all, they were afraid of being put out of the synagogue and were likely to afraid to take any kind of action against the religious leaders. Matthew and Mark don't mention the stoning; only them being afraid. Perhaps Luke embellishes stories with hearsay.
(Luke 20:7) And they answered, that they could not tell whence it was.
(Luke 20:8) And Jesus said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.
(Luke 20:9) Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far country for a long time.
(Luke 20:10) And at the season he sent a servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard: but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty.
(Luke 20:11) And again he sent another servant: and they beat him also, and entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty.
(Luke 20:12) And again he sent a third: and they wounded him also, and cast him out.
(Luke 20:13) Then said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son: it may be they will reverence him when they see him.
(Luke 20:14) But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, This is the heir: come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.
(Luke 20:15) So they cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore shall the lord of the vineyard do unto them?
(Luke 20:16) He shall come and destroy these husbandmen, and shall give the vineyard to others. And when they heard it, they said, God forbid.
(Luke 20:17) And he beheld them, and said, What is this then that is written, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?
(Luke 20:18) Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.
(Luke 20:19) And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them.
(Luke 20:20) And they watched him, and sent forth spies, which should feign [pretend] themselves just [sincere] men, that they might take hold of his words, that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the governor.
They think they can beat Jesus through words, reason, and rhetoric. But weirdly, they don't become his followers when they continually lose these verbal battles. They are not committed to truth wherever it may lead, not faith-filled, but, rather, political schemers.
(Luke 20:21) And they asked him, saying, Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly, neither acceptest thou the person of any, but teachest the way of God truly:
(Luke 20:22) Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?
(Luke 20:23) But he perceived their craftiness, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me?
(Luke 20:24) Shew [show] me a penny. Whose image and superscription hath it? They answered and said, Caesar's.
(Luke 20:25) And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.
(Luke 20:26) And they could not take hold [trap] of his words before the people: and they marvelled at his answer, and held their peace [became silent].
Jesus was very charismatic and enraptured the crowds. He was quite an entertainer.
They think they can beat Jesus through words, reason, and rhetoric. But weirdly, they don't become his followers when they continually lose these verbal battles. They are not committed to truth wherever it may lead, not faith-filled, but, rather, political schemers.
(Luke 20:27) Then came to him certain of the Sadducees, which deny that there is any resurrection; and they asked him,
(Luke 20:28) Saying, Master, Moses wrote unto us, If any man's brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
(Luke 20:29) There were therefore seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and died without children.
(Luke 20:30) And the second took her to wife, and he died childless.
(Luke 20:31) And the third took her; and in like manner the seven also: and they left no children, and died.
(Luke 20:32) Last of all the woman died also.
(Luke 20:33) Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them is she? for seven had her to wife.
This was a very long-winded example.
(Luke 20:34) And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage:
(Luke 20:35) But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage:
(Luke 20:36) Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.
(Luke 20:37) Now that the dead are raised, even Moses shewed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.
(Luke 20:38) For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living: for all live unto him.
(Luke 20:39) Then certain of the scribes answering said, Master, thou hast well said.
(Luke 20:40) And after that they durst not ask him any question at all.
(Luke 20:41) And he said unto them, How say they that Christ is David's son?
(Luke 20:42) And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,
(Luke 20:43) Till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
(Luke 20:44) David therefore calleth him Lord, how is he then his son?
(Luke 20:45) Then in the audience of all the people he said unto his disciples,
(Luke 20:46) Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts;
(Luke 20:47) Which devour widows' houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation.
(Luke 21:1) And he looked up, and saw the rich men casting their gifts into the treasury.
(Luke 21:2) And he saw also a certain poor widow casting in thither two mites.
(Luke 21:3) And he said, Of a truth I say unto you, that this poor widow hath cast in more than they all:
(Luke 21:4) For all these have of their abundance cast in unto the offerings of God: but she of her penury hath cast in all the living that she had.
Note the following chronological sequence of events...
Josephus confirms that the events of the Jewish War happened exactly as specified.
(Luke 21:5) And as some spake of the temple, how it was adorned with goodly [beautiful] stones and gifts, he said,
(Luke 21:6) As for these things which ye behold, the days will come, in the which there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
This verse provides evidence the gospel of Luke was written before the temple was destroyed in 70 A.D. Otherwise we should expect mention of the stones being taken apart by the Romans retrieving the melted gold.
(Luke 21:7) And they asked him, saying, Master, but when shall these things be? and what sign will there be when these things shall come to pass?
(Luke 21:8) And he said, Take heed that ye be not deceived: for many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and the time draweth near: go ye not therefore after them.
(Luke 21:9) But when ye shall hear of wars and commotions, be not terrified: for these things must first come to pass; but the end is not by and by.
(Luke 21:10) Then said he unto them, Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom:
(Luke 21:11) And great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and famines, and pestilences; and fearful sights and great signs shall there be from heaven.
(Luke 21:12) But before all these, they shall lay their hands on you, and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues, and into prisons, being brought before kings and rulers for my name's sake.
(Luke 21:13) And it shall turn to you for a testimony.
(Luke 21:14) Settle it therefore in your hearts, not to meditate before what ye shall answer:
(Luke 21:15) For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist.
(Luke 21:16) And ye shall be betrayed both by parents, and brethren, and kinsfolks, and friends; and some of you shall they cause to be put to death.
(Luke 21:17) And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake.
(Luke 21:18) But there shall not an hair of your head perish.
(Luke 21:19) In your patience possess ye your souls.
(Luke 21:20) And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh [near].
(Luke 21:21) Then let them which are in Judaea [Judea] flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto.
(Luke 21:22) For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.
God is not the one with vengeance against the rebelliousness of Jerusalem, it's the Romans. It's caused by the anarchy of the various militant rebels who are trying to overthrow Roman rule. And that is a response to the Romans conquering nations in creating an empire. It's man's inhumanity to man which manifests as vengeance. Often, the suffering is self-caused but not by the many innocent people who suffer from the deeds of a few wild-eyed fanatics.
(Luke 21:23) But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! for there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon this people.
The context is the destruction of the temple. In this passage the word "wrath" merely means the judgment from God upon the rebellious nation of Israel.
(Luke 21:24) And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.
Jerusalem will no longer be trodden down by the Gentiles in the new heavens and new earth. This trodding down by the Gentiles was already occurring in Jesus' day and, in fact, began with the conquest by the Babylonians.
(Luke 21:25) And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring;
(Luke 21:26) Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken.
(Luke 21:27) And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.
(Luke 21:28) And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh [near].
(Luke 21:29) And he spake to them a parable; Behold the fig tree, and all the trees;
(Luke 21:30) When they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves that summer is now nigh [near] at hand.
(Luke 21:31) So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh [near] at hand.
(Luke 21:32) Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all be fulfilled.
The phrase "this generation" seems to refer to those he was speaking to. Therefore, I conclude that these things were all fulfilled in the writing of the book of Revelation by John. Jesus reveals his second coming in chapter 19.
(Luke 21:33) Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away.
(Luke 21:34) And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares.
Since they are waiting for Christ's coming, this implies that he comes at their death; that everyone encounters Christ at death and they are received into the kingdom of heaven at that time. It doesn't make sense for them to be exhorted to wait for Christ's coming if it occurs thousands (millions?) of years after they have died.
(Luke 21:35) For as a snare shall it come on all them that dwell on the face of the whole earth.
(Luke 21:36) Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.
*** End of Olivet Discourse ***
(Luke 21:37) And in the day time he was teaching in the temple; and at night he went out, and abode [stayed] in the mount that is called the mount of Olives.
Apparently they were spending the night outside at this time.
Some say this verse means the preceding teaching of Jesus did not occur on the Mount of Olives and that, therefore, the account in Luke took place at a different time than that of Matthew and Mark. Nonsense! They are all accounts of the same event, the same episode.
(Luke 21:38) And all the people came early in the morning to him in the temple, for to hear him.
After spending the night on the Mount of Olives, Jesus would go into the city of Jerusalem early in the morning to preach to the people. There were many more people than usual for the Passover celebrations with new ones arriving daily.
(Luke 22:1) Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh [near], which is called the Passover.
Notice the Feast of Unleavened Bread is also called Passover. The day day eat the Passover lamb, Nissan 15, is the same day the celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread. They eat the Passover lamb at the start of the day, that night after 6 P.M. then the next morning begins the Feast of Unleavened Bread; all this on Nissan 15th.
(Luke 22:2) And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people.
They were probably afraid the people would riot if Jesus made a public appearance proclaiming himself as Messiah or some such. The Romans would send in troops to restore order. Also, their power might be be reduced with Romans taking more severe control of Judea.
(Luke 22:3) Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.
Satan entered into Judas at least twice, each time when he decided to betray Jesus and took action upon this...
Satan entered into Judas because he invited him in. In the spiritual realm our souls are currently buffeted by the powers of darkness. Certain behaviors and attitudes and beliefs allow these spiritual powers to intertwine with our soul even more intimately.
(Luke 22:4) And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them.
(Luke 22:5) And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.
(Luke 22:6) And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.
(Luke 22:7) Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed.
(Luke 22:8) And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat.
Often James is also with these two, but not this time.
(Luke 22:9) And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare?
(Luke 22:10) And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in.
The upper room was in the Essene quarter at the SW corner of Jerusalem. The Essenes were fanatics with their rituals of purity and probably carried water continually from outside the city or a spigot near the wall into the building having the upper room which Jesus rented. Probably Jesus reserved this room ahead of time without the disciples' knowledge.
(Luke 22:11) And ye shall say unto the goodman [owner or manager] of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?
This dialog suggests the disciples are merely locating the room Jesus had previously reserved or rented.
The man carrying the water is not the owner or manager of the building.
(Luke 22:12) And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished: there make ready.
(Luke 22:13) And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.
This was a Passover meal of the Essenes having no Passover lamb; there is no mention of slaughtering a lamb, or cooking and eating it.
The key events of the Last Supper in proper chronological sequence (there are differences in the sequences among the 4 gospels for the sake of emphasizing and grouping topics)...
(Luke 22:14) And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.
(Luke 22:15) And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:
(Luke 22:16) For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
Before the institution of the Eucharist several key events occurred...
(Luke 22:17) And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:
(Luke 22:18) For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.
(Luke 22:19) And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.
(Luke 22:20) Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.
This sounds like the meal followed the bread and preceeded the cup, but it may be that the phrase "after supper" is an afterthought informing the reader the Eucharist took place after supper. In Matthew and Mark the entire Eucharist occurs after supper.
(Luke 22:21) But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.
(Luke 22:22) And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!
(Luke 22:23) And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.
(Luke 22:24) And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest.
(Luke 22:25) And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors.
(Luke 22:26) But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
(Luke 22:27) For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth.
(Luke 22:28) Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations.
(Luke 22:29) And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me;
(Luke 22:30) That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
(Luke 22:31) And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat:
(Luke 22:32) But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.
Jesus prayed for Peter that his faith would not fail. Peter followed as close as he could to Jesus (at a distance) risking discovery at the trial. After denying three times he knew Jesus and running off to weep when the rooster crowed, Peter at some point regained his composure, his resolve, and again took his place as first among the apostles. Certainly in the days before the falling of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, Peter was the leader of the apostles. I can imagine that Peter's strength of faith encouraged the others.
Jesus prayed that Peter's faith would not fail, therefore, we must conclude that Peter's faith did not fail. People often claim Peter apostatized, but I reject this claim. Peter told a little white lie in a moment of severe distress and fear and this may have saved his life; this hardly qualifies as apostasy. I wonder if it was no worse to throw a pinch of incense in the fire as demanded of Christians centuries later by the Romans? It seems like the bishops made too much of this and were too severe in their treatment of those who did. This act can easily be interpreted as merely demonstrating loyalty to the state rather than of worship of a false god, especially since there was no worship ceremony or confession of faith involved. They would just get in line, pick up their pinch of incense, toss it in the fire, pick their paperwork, and be done with it — this is hardly a worship ceremony or confession of faith in the deity of the emperor or the worship of the emperor.
(Luke 22:33) And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death.
(Luke 22:34) And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.
(Luke 22:35) And he said unto them, When I sent you without purse [for money], and scrip [food bag], and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing.
(Luke 22:36) Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one.
There was to be a significant change. While Jesus was alive the disciples were protected. Once he was gone they would be vulnerable. The Jews, the Romans, so-called Christian heretics, other Christians; all fighting and killing true believers. Jesus appears to be advising Christians to defend themselves and the faith via warfare. The could no longer depend on the good will of those they minister to for food and shelter.
(Luke 22:37) For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end.
(Luke 22:38) And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough.
Notice that the disciples already had two swords they carried. Perhaps to defend themselves from bears, lions, or bandits. Jesus warning about defending themselves was not to begin just yet; two swords is plenty. Peter, of course, took Jesus literally and began using the sword even upon Jesus' capture and arrest.
Luke and John have the correct sequence of events. All the long speeches including reference to Peter's denial of Jesus occur while yet in the upper room. In the Garden of Gethsemane the only events that occur are Jesus' prayers followed by his arrest; it is a somber affair.
(Luke 22:39) And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him.
(Luke 22:40) And when he was at the place, he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation.
(Luke 22:41) And he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast, and kneeled down, and prayed,
(Luke 22:42) Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done.
We should wonder how Luke knows about this private prayer of Jesus? Perhaps Jesus told the disciples about it after his resurrection?
(Luke 22:43) And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him.
(Luke 22:44) And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.
(Luke 22:45) And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow,
(Luke 22:46) And said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.
(Luke 22:47) And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him.
(Luke 22:48) But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?
(Luke 22:49) When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword?
(Luke 22:50) And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.
Peter was left-handed, that's why it was the man's right ear.
(Luke 22:51) And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far [no more]. And he touched his ear, and healed him.
The time for Christians to take up arms had not started yet.
Only Luke mentions Jesus healing his ear. Did a new ear grow or appear leaving the original one still lying in the dirt? or did Jesus pick it up and reattach it?
(Luke 22:52) Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves?
(Luke 22:53) When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
(Luke 22:54) Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest's house.
...And Peter followed afar off.
The reason Peter followed at a distance was he could get no closer than the courtyard with the servants. To claim this being "at a distance" was because Peter was a weak faithless cowardly man is idiotic. Shame on people who use this verse for this purpose.
(Luke 22:55) And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall [courtyard], and were set down together, Peter sat down among them.
(Luke 22:56) But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him.
(Luke 22:57) And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not.
(Luke 22:58) And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not.
(Luke 22:59) And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilaean.
(Luke 22:60) And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew.
(Luke 22:61) And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.
Peter is close enough to Jesus they can see each other. He got as close as possible, risking his life in the process.
(Luke 22:62) And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.
(Luke 22:63) And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote him.
(Luke 22:64) And when they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?
(Luke 22:65) And many other things blasphemously spake they against him.
Notice Luke's comment that they spoke blasphemy about Jesus. Luke is declaring Jesus is God; you can only blaspheme against God. But Luke doesn't mention any blasphemous statements. Only Matthew mentions they mockingly call him Christ as they beat him up. This implies the sequence of events in Matthew's account is correct; they heard the high priest say "Christ" and "son of God" so they mocked Jesus using these. (According to some early church fathers, Matthew wrote his gospel first.)
(Luke 22:66) And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying,
The high priest's question is reported in two other gospels but the wording is different in all three. Therefore, these are not intended as accurate historical quotes but are, rather, fiction. Sorry; you can't harmonize these into a single question by mixing and matching bits and pieces of each account like a jigsaw puzzle. All we can say is the high priest asked something like what is reported in all three.
(Luke 22:68) And if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, nor let me go.
(Luke 22:69) Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God.
We should wonder why it's emphasized so strongly that Jesus sits at the right hand of God, after all, as second person of the Trinity he is God also and has always been so. The only sensible explanation is that he deified human nature.
(Luke 22:70) Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.
Jesus says he is the "I am". If he had instead answered their question by saying, "yes", they would have merely thought him to be a false prophet. But in answering "I am" he was claiming to be deity, which of course he is.
Notice they all ask, quite noisy. Luke emphasizes the son of God question.
(Luke 22:71) And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.
(Luke 23:1) And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate.
(Luke 23:2) And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.
(Luke 23:3) And Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answered him and said, Thou sayest it.
We should wonder how Luke knows of this seemingly private conversation with Pilate? Perhaps a guard in attendance later became a Christian?
(Luke 23:4) Then said Pilate to the chief priests and to the people, I find no fault in this man.
(Luke 23:5) And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place.
(Luke 23:6) When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the man were a Galilaean.
(Luke 23:7) And as soon as he knew that he belonged unto Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time.
There is not enough time in one morning for the chief priests to bring Jesus to Pilate, for Pilate to send him to Herod, for Herod to send him back to Jesus for final sentencing, all before 9 A.M. when Jesus was crucified.
(Luke 23:8) And when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by him.
(Luke 23:9) Then he questioned with him in many words; but he answered him nothing.
(Luke 23:10) And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused him.
The chief priests went along with Jesus to Herod.
(Luke 23:11) And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate.
(Luke 23:12) And the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together: for before they were at enmity between themselves.
(Luke 23:13) And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people,
(Luke 23:14) Said unto them, Ye have brought this man unto me, as one that perverteth the people: and, behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him:
(Luke 23:15) No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him.
(Luke 23:16) I will therefore chastise him, and release him.
(Luke 23:17) (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.)
(Luke 23:18) And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas:
(Luke 23:19) (Who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison.)
(Luke 23:20) Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them.
(Luke 23:21) But they cried, saying, Crucify him, crucify him.
(Luke 23:22) And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go.
(Luke 23:23) And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed.
(Luke 23:24) And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required.
Only in the morning did Pilate finally sentence Jesus to be crucified. He was taken away soon after this and was crucified starting at A.M.
(Luke 23:25) And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will.
(Luke 23:26) And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus.
(Luke 23:27) And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him.
(Luke 23:28) But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children.
Those living in Jerusalem would suffer and many would die.
(Luke 23:31) For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?
(Luke 23:32) And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death.
(Luke 23:33) And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.
(Luke 23:34) Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.
(Luke 23:35) And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.
(Luke 23:36) And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar [sour wine],
Luke is the only gospel writer mentioning the solders mocking Jesus in connection with giving him wine. Probably there were all kinds of things going on at the same time, some soldiers mocking, some offering him wine with myrrh.
(Luke 23:37) And saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself.
(Luke 23:38) And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.
(Luke 23:39) And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us.
(Luke 23:40) But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation?
(Luke 23:41) And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss.
(Luke 23:42) And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom.
(Luke 23:43) And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.
(Luke 23:44) And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour.
(Luke 23:45) And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.
Jesus was probably 37 years old when he died.
(Luke 23:47) Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man.
(Luke 23:48) And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned.
(Luke 23:49) And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.
(Luke 23:50) And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just:
(Luke 23:51) (The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them;) he was of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God.
(Luke 23:52) This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus.
(Luke 23:53) And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre [tomb] that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.
(Luke 23:54) And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on.
(Luke 23:55) And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre [tomb], and how his body was laid.
(Luke 23:56) And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.
How did they come to have all these spices and ointments? And how did they have time to prepare them since the Sabbath began at sunset and it was already Friday evening near dark during the preparations for the feast days? Surely these women had other responsibilities they had to attend to at such an important occasion? Maybe they bought the spices while Jesus was carrying the cross to be crucified.
(Luke 24:1) Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre [tomb], bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.
(Luke 24:2) And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre [tomb].
(Luke 24:3) And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.
The angels look like men, but glowing with light. Are the women still in the tomb or did the first go back outside?
(Luke 24:5) And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?
(Luke 24:6) He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,
(Luke 24:7) Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.
(Luke 24:8) And they remembered his words,
(Luke 24:9) And returned from the sepulchre [tomb], and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest.
(Luke 24:11) And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not.
(Luke 24:12) Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre [tomb]; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.
(Luke 24:13) And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs [7 miles].
This was on the first Easter Sunday.
It's not easy understanding distances from other time periods. The original Greek has 60 stadia with one stadion = 600 feet. The King James has threescore furlongs. Threescore = 3 x 20 = 60. A furlong = 1/8 mile.
(Luke 24:14) And they talked together of all these things which had happened.
(Luke 24:15) And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.
(Luke 24:16) But their eyes were holden [prevented] that they should not know [recognize] him.
Notice their eyes were prevented from recognizing Jesus, an active process, not passive. Some say they didn't recognize Jesus because he was now disfigured having just been crucified but they would have known who he was if he looked like someone just crucified. Perhaps he now looked much younger having a resurrected body. Perhaps his 30+ years of a hard life took its toll. More importantly though, Jesus could have easily just told them who he was; why was he so secretive? Perhaps his words had more impact on them when they were not overwhelmed with emotions of joy upon seeing him in person, being more receptive to hearing the stories and mentally processing them.
They didn't recognize him because he looked different. The resurrected body isn't static like a puppet; different looks express different aspects of your soul. In the infinity of years in the new heavens and new earth you will adopt many physical characteristics — accents, hair color, facial features. Perhaps at times your own children who you haven't seen in a million years won't recognize you — until you reveal your essence to them.
(Luke 24:17) And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad?
The appearance of Jesus interrupted the discussion of the two disciples. He wanted them to continue the discussion.
(Luke 24:18) And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas [Clopas], answering said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?
These disciples were not of the 12 apostles (now 11). It is possible that this Cleopas is the same as the Cleopas present at the crucifixion of Jesus with his wife, named Mary. If so, perhaps she was the second person. Anyway, there are all kinds of speculations about these people being related to Joseph and having descendants who were martyred and etc.
This appearance was similar to Jesus' appearance to Paul, a personal apprenticeship into Christian doctrine.
(Luke 24:19) And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:
Jesus asks them to explain their perspective of the topic before he begins his teaching. They accurately knew of Jesus; who he was and what he did.
(Luke 24:20) And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.
(Luke 24:21) But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.
They were looking for Jesus to redeem the Jews and, presumably, were disappointed when he was instead crucified.
(Luke 24:22) Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre [tomb];
They apparently believed the story of the women, that Jesus was no longer in the tomb. These women were considered part of their company, meaning, followers of Jesus and soon-to-be members of the 120 who were in the upper room awaiting the coming of the Holy Spirit.
The women saw two men in shining clothing. It was reported by others hearing their story as a vision of angels, implying, it was less likely to be true — that they merely imagined it. I wonder if this is because women were (and still are) thought of so poorly by men.
(Luke 24:24) And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre [tomb], and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not.
It is odd that these two would refer to the apostle Peter as "one of us". Today we might prefer to think of them as "one of them" giving the apostles the preeminence. Perhaps these two disciples were one of the 70 sent off to evangelize and considered themselves equal to the apostles.
(Luke 24:25) Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken:
Jesus often calls the faithful slow of heart, or small in faith, or fools. We are to have unwavering faith in the Old Testament prophets and in John the Baptist. As a prerequisite this requires accurate understanding of their words, of interpretation. In fact, this is a key ingredient of Christianity, having correct doctrine. They could not truly believe the teachings of the prophets because they did not fully understand the words. Jesus clears this up for them now.
(Luke 24:26) Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?
The thing missing in interpretation of the prophets was the true nature of the Messiah, thinking he would be a mere political leader who would free Israel from the yoke of Rome.
(Luke 24:27) And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
The scriptures referred to is the Old Testament.
(Luke 24:28) And they drew nigh [near] unto the village, whither [to where] they went: and he made as though he would have gone further.
Jesus was apparently on his way to a more distant destination, perhaps merely around the bend in the fork in the road where he could disappear unseen. It would have been impolite for Jesus to have followed them to wherever they were staying.
(Luke 24:29) But they constrained him, saying, Abide [stay] with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent [nearly over]. And he went in to tarry [stay] with them.
Perhaps they had friends or family they were staying with (but we don't hear of them).
(Luke 24:30) And it came to pass, as he sat at meat [meal] with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake [broke], and gave to them.
There is no mention of others besides the 3 of them. Perhaps they were staying in a rented room. This scene of the meal probably took place some time after they arrived in town; it took time to rent the room, settle in, and prepare food. Notice that Jesus breaks the bread, he dominates every situation.
We should not expect Luke to use the phrase "breaking bread" consistently in the gospel of Luke and the book of Acts: here Jesus does it, perhaps to remind them of it; later the Church does it. At first the Eucharist was tangled together with the fellowship meal similar to the last supper. Only later after they abandoned the fellowship meal did the Eucharist become separate.
(Luke 24:31) And their eyes were opened, and they knew [recognized] him; and he vanished out of their sight.
Suddenly after the breaking of the bread they recognize Jesus. This has a Eucharistic significance. Many Christians reject the notion that the consecrated bread and wine of communion are the actual body, blood, soul, and divinity of the person of Jesus Christ, but the early church believed and practiced this from day one. But this verse is not the Eucharist, it merely hints at it.
(Luke 24:32) And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?
I remember feeling this burning within my spirit when I was first hearing of Christianity.
I should mention, I've had multiple discussions with Mormons who suggest I should have a burning in my bosom to discern the truth of their false and heretical teachings. But having this sensation only has value as confirmation of a teaching if the teaching is actually true. Thus, this burning can even occur as a response to false and heretical teaching. In the case of the story at hand, these two disciples were in the presence of Jesus himself. When I inform these Mormon's that my burning bosom tells me their teachings are false, they are not impressed. This is the problem with using feelings as evidence; it is totally subjective and untrustworthy. Feelings are useful only in the context of correct doctrine. Christianity is apostolic, meaning, the teachings of the apostles are authoritative. This is also my objection to the Charismatic movement.
(Luke 24:33) And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them,
Their response to recognizing Jesus and seeing him miraculously vanish was to immediately go back to Jerusalem to report this to the 11 apostles. Presumably they made the trip at night even though their reason for Jesus to stay with them was that he should not journey at night. Of course, there were two of them; maybe it was safer. And maybe there was a full moon to light the way. Did they have to check out of their room early?
When they arrived in Jerusalem it was late, at least four hours after dark. How did they know where the apostles had gathered? Perhaps they had been with them only hours earlier? We sometimes have the idea the apostles spent their time secluded, but how often we encounter them in close interaction with other disciples including the women.
Perhaps the apostles and the others were still staying in the upper room. It appears they used this as their base of operations for day or weeks or even years; it was near to the temple and large enough for at least 120 of them.
(Luke 24:34) Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon.
(Luke 24:35) And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread.
(Luke 24:36) And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
(Luke 24:37) But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit.
(Luke 24:38) And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts?
(Luke 24:39) Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
(Luke 24:40) And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.
(Luke 24:41) And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?
(Luke 24:42) And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.
(Luke 24:43) And he took it, and did eat before them.
(Luke 24:44) And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.
(Luke 24:45) Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures,
(Luke 24:46) And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:
No reference to 3 days and 3 nights, to 72 hours. In fact, the phrase "the third day" can't mean 72 hours because there must be some time before the end of the third day to rise; it is therefore at least one minute less than 72 hours. But since it doesn't specify the time being 5:59 P.M. (the end of the day) we should assume it was many hours sooner, many hours less than 72 hours.
(Luke 24:47) And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
(Luke 24:48) And ye are witnesses of these things.
(Luke 24:49) And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry [remain] ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.
The word "until" doesn't imply there was a change of condition afterwards. In this case, they remained in Jerusalem long after this.
(Luke 24:50) And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.
(Luke 24:51) And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.
(Luke 24:52) And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:
(Luke 24:53) And were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.
King James Version