I recommend Tim McGrew, a Christian apologist and philosopher. Many YouTube videos about the gospels and Acts of topics such as: who wrote them, internal and external evidence of their reliability, alleged contradictions and historic errors.
The gospel of John was written by the apostle John before he wrote the book of Revelation. He lived in Ephesus in Asia at the time and wrote this gospel to refute the Docetists, the Ebionites, and the early Gnostics which included the Nicolaitans. He added details about the life of Christ not mentioned in the other gospels and he did not repeat details which were already present in the other gospels.
John emphasizes the following topics to the extreme which makes for weird reading if not mingled with the other gospels...
(John 1:1) In the beginning was the Word [logos], and the Word [logos] was with God, and the Word [logos] was God.
John borrows a philosophical term, logos, giving it a new meaning. The Jewish philosopher Philo used the term to refer to concepts similar to the Christian view of Christ the Son of God as mediator between God and man. Even Philo's view was a modification from earlier philosophers.
The significance of using the word "word" to refer to God is that God's utterances and activities in the physical and spiritual realms are expressions of his nature; all aspects of God are God himself. Thus in meditating on God's activities and in obeying his commands, his moral law, we worship God's person; we interact with God through his activities and manifestations. The Eastern Orthodox Churches refers to this as God's Divine Energies, that aspect of God which we can interact with, distinct from God's Essence which we cannot.
The logos was "in the beginning". The beginning of what? The spiritual realm of angels existed before the universe was created, perhaps this was created or perhaps it always existed as part of God's nature as Spirit, as the Holy Spirit.
This verse is Trinitarian. The second person of the Trinity, the Son of God, is both "with" God while at the same time "is" God. This all gets very confusing and tricky. The main thing in all this is, I think, that Jesus is worthy of our praise, worship, awe, admiration, respect, and any other kind of expression we can have toward that ultimate Creator God who created us for His plan and purpose, and for our benefit. We need not worry about whether worshipping Jesus, a man, is idolatry. It is not, this because he took on human nature in the incarnation and made it part of God's nature. We will finally enjoy the benefits of all this in the new heavens and new earth.
(John 1:2) The same was in the beginning with God.
(John 1:3) All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
In using the word "things" I wonder if John means physical things, the universe. In any case, all created things were created by God, the Trinity. Certainly all living creatures, physical and spiritual, are in this category of created things.
(John 1:4) In him was life; and the life was the light of men.
The Trinity is the source of life, is life itself. All living creatures are connected to the source of life as branches to a tree.
A comparison of some views...
Notice that light comes from life. God is the source of everything; he is life and light. I think the reference to light is not just a metaphor for truth or knowledge or something like that. The essence of the spiritual realm is life and light. The mental powers of our soul are composed of aspects of the spiritual realm. Even in darkness there is light because our minds are reflecting, thinking, reasoning, and our consciousness is alert and active.
(John 1:5) And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.
The concept of darkness is not just a metaphor for evil. In rejecting connectedness with God, the wicked spirits are banished to a realm outside of God's protective grace, a world of death, decay, pain, suffering, anguish, and darkness. The souls of us humans are tangled-up in this and are thus plagued by original sin. God shines his light, his very essence, into the soul of each person hoping they will discern the infinite goodness of the light and reject darkness. Ultimately, at death, each person must choose. Darkness is incapable of perceiving light, thus, the doctrine of total depravity is simply wrong; we were created "very good" and retain this God-given innate goodness even in our current fallen condition. The soul is capable of recognizing the infinite superiority of the light over darkness because it was created in the image of God. It did not lose this image of God during the fall of Adam.
(John 1:6) There was a man sent from God, whose name was John.
A few facts about John the Baptist...
(John 1:7) The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him might believe.
(John 1:8) He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light.
(John 1:9) That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.
Jesus shines the light of truth, the light of God's very essence, upon every person. This happens during life as he illumines each soul with the sense of moral outrage at sin and evil. But finally it happens at death when Jesus reveals himself in his true glory and each person must choose to accept or reject him.
(John 1:10) He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.
Jesus came into the world as a human, taking on human nature and joining human nature into the Godhead. How could God, in the person of the second person of the Trinity, inhabit a human body just as the soul of each human does, unless humanity became part of God's nature? Thus, God redeemed human nature as a prerequisite of redeeming humans.
(John 1:11) He came unto his own, and his own received him not.
Jesus as Messiah was rejected by the Jewish religious leaders. Certainly some believed, but the formal institution of the Jewish religion rejected him. Of course, as Jesus noted on many occasions, this leadership of God's chosen nation of Israel had forsaken God's call and purpose for this nation and people long before.
This raises the question of whether the Church is also to be a formal institution having recognizable leaders who can go bad? The Catholic Church claims to be this Church. I reject this notion as I discuss elsewhere; Jesus did not intend in the new covenant to replicate the same kinds of problems of old covenant Israel.
(John 1:12) But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:
Redemption is a family matter, we become children of God in relationship with his person.
(John 1:13) Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
Being born again is a birth of the spirit, of the soul, into God's glorious kingdom. We abandon Satan's kingdom of darkness and enter into God's kingdom of light. Of course, only in the new heavens and new earth are we 100% free from the bad effects; once our soul was dragged through the influences of the powers of darkness it became contaminated, unclean. It takes a process, purgatory, to clean it off to be suitable for life in the new heavens and new earth.
(John 1:14) And the Word [logos] was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
(John 1:15) John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before me.
Notice the significant role of John the Baptist in this story. It is he who turns it from a mere philosophical discussion to flesh and blood reality in the person of Jesus. As Christians we do not need to be forever trapped in the realm of philosophical ideas, rather, we can meditate on the life of Jesus, and his words and sayings, and his promises. In doing so we experience true worship of God.
(John 1:16) And of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace.
(John 1:17) For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.
(John 1:18) No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.
(John 1:19) And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou?
(John 1:20) And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ.
(John 1:21) And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias [Elijah]? And he saith, I am not. Art thou that prophet? And he answered, No.
Why did John the Baptist say he was not Elijah? Did his father Zechariah not tell him of the prophecy given by the angel? Perhaps they mistakenly believed in reincarnation, but this is unlikely since there was no such concept in Judaism. Perhaps they thought Elijah would come back from heaven in another chariot and wondered if this was the origin of John the Baptist; likely they knew nothing of his early life since he was a Nazarite and lived in the wilderness. More likely, perhaps they thought the spirit of Elijah came upon John the Baptist like it did with Elisha. Perhaps John the Baptist wished to emphasize his role as the forerunner of Christ while those questioning him seemed to place the emphasis instead on him.
(John 1:22) Then said they unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself?
(John 1:24) And they which were sent were of the Pharisees.
(John 1:25) And they asked him, and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias [Elijah], neither that prophet?
(John 1:26) John answered them, saying, I baptize with water: but there standeth one among you, whom ye know not;
(John 1:27) He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose shoe's [sandal] latchet [strap] I am not worthy to unloose.
Servants untied the straps of the sandals of their masters. John the baptist is saying he is not worthy to be the servant of Jesus the Messiah who is so great.
(John 1:28) These things were done in Bethabara [Bethany] beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.
This is about 25 miles east of Jerusalem, quite a long walk.
(John 1:30) This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me.
(John 1:31) And I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water.
(John 1:32) And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him.
Note there is no mention of Jesus fasting 40 days in the wilderness in the gospel of John. Presumably it occurs during this time, before Jesus interacts with the various disciples.
(John 1:33) And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost [Spirit].
(John 1:34) And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God.
It's as if people are looking for, longing for, a Messiah who was the Son of God. John the baptist points out that Jesus is this. But the religious leaders seem only to be looking for a political leader to free them from Roman rule. The disciples of Jesus thought Jesus was both.
(John 1:36) And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God!
(John 1:38) Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, Master,) where dwellest thou?
(John 1:39) He saith unto them, Come and see. They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: for it was about the tenth hour.
Jesus is at the Jordan River near John the Baptist. It is not certain where Jesus lived, whether renting a room or perhaps in a field. In any case, he is not in Galilee. Presumably, Andrew and Peter were away from home to hear John the Baptist and perhaps to be baptized. They appear to be on a spiritual quest, interrupting their work fishing. Thus, at least some of the apostles were introduced to Jesus by John the Baptist.
(John 1:40) One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.
One of these two was Andrew. The other was somebody else, but not Peter.
(John 1:41) He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias [Messiah], which is, being interpreted, the Christ.
It is not certain whether Peter was also at the Jordan River or whether Andrew went back to Capernaum to fetch Peter — probably Peter was nearby. It was about 25 miles to Capernaum so it would have taken a couple of days to make this round-trip journey.
The Greek word "Christ" is a translation of the Hebrew/Aramaic word "Messiah".
(John 1:42) And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, A stone.
(John 1:43) The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow me.
Perhaps Jesus went to Peter's house at his invitation.
(John 1:44) Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter.
(John 1:45) Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.
(John 1:46) And Nathanael said unto him, Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip saith unto him, Come and see.
(John 1:48) Nathanael saith unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee.
(John 1:49) Nathanael answered and saith unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel.
This is a remarkable confession. The soon-to-be disciples of Jesus must have heard these truths about Jesus from John the baptist.
King of Israel: That there would soon be a king in Israel must have been resonating in the national consciousness; within 40 years there would be a failed revolution against Rome. Unexpected was that the kingdom of Jesus would not be political; the disciples never quite understood this until after the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost.
Son of God: They knew of a Messiah who would be the Son of God. Even the man from Ethiopia knew of this. Remarkable! I wonder how to reconcile that the Jews believed the Messiah would be a mere political revolutionary but also know of such a concept as "Son of God". But when Jesus referred to himself by this phrase the high priest considered it blasphemy. This implies there could never be such a person as the "Son of God" so why was this familiar to everyone?
(John 1:50) Jesus answered and said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than these.
(John 1:51) And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.
(John 2:1) And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there:
Cana was about 15 miles to the west and south of Capernaum so this trip would have taken a day or more.
(John 2:2) And both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage.
It doesn't say who invited Jesus and his disciples to the wedding. Perhaps Mary invited them and that's why they ran out of wine, because there were so many extra guests. I suspect that far more than the 12 disciples were invited; perhaps there were hundreds of surprise guests. Perhaps that's part of the lesson here, that God can accommodate any number of people into his kingdom; no one need be turned away. Based on the amount of wine Jesus made from water, it appears that there were hundreds of uninvited people, not merely Jesus and the 12 disciples.
(John 2:3) And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.
If Mary were the one who invited all the extra unplanned-for guests she would feel a sense of responsibility when the wine ran out. She felt very comfortable asking Jesus to solve the problem; perhaps this kind of miraculous intervention was common in that household with Jesus often performing miracles for Mary to take care of her. He did the same kind of thing for Peter so he could pay their taxes.
Notice the use of wine, and lot's of it, at the wedding. I am not promoting the use of alcohol and don't consume it myself, but it is drunkenness that is the sin. Some people have trouble with gluttony and some have trouble with alcoholism. For these it is better to abstain from alcohol and to be moderate with diet. We should not corrupt these poor souls by tempting them in their area of weakness. People who drink alcohol are often completely oblivious and insensitive to the struggles of those around them.
(John 2:4) Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come.
I doubt Jesus was so somber and serious all the time. Perhaps he here is playing with Mary, perhaps a game they played throughout their lives together. Jesus would say something cryptic and Mary would guess his true intent. In this case, he pretends she associates their running out of wine as in some way connected with his Messianic mission. She probably chuckled to herself from this.
The implication is that once Jesus' hour does come, he will have some special interaction with his mother Mary, who he here calls woman. Perhaps the idea is that just as Jesus united himself to humanity in taking on human flesh from Mary in her womb, so also he takes upon himself the sins of the world and brings redemption. For Mary, this has special significance since his sacrificial death provided the means for her to be conceived sinless and to remain free from original sin. (I accept the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception; that Mary was conceived sinless to be a fitting vessel for Jesus to take human flesh from and to be born from.)
What does Jesus have to do with the woman, Mary, his mother? He took his human nature from her. At his resurrection he would deify human nature forever. At that time he would fill the lack that each of us has, the lack of unity with God, of fellowship with God. Until then, all he could do was miraculously cure people's physical, emotional, psychological needs; miraculously provide people's food and drink; and even forgive their sins. What did he have to do with the woman? The truly important thing would have to wait until his time had come.
(John 2:5) His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it.
(John 2:6) And there were set there six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins [20 to 30 gallons] apiece.
These stone waterpots probably were not moved but water was drawn from them into smaller containers to be used for washing the hands and feet. Perhaps people also drank the water from these waterpots; this makes sense since the wine would fill the pots. I doubt if anyone would use the wine to wash their hands and feet. The jars were partially empty since they had been used already.
This was a huge wedding requiring at least 120 gallons of water. We might wonder why the wine ran out. Perhaps all the extra uninvited guests that Mary brought.
(John 2:7) Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.
It probably took quite a while to fill the waterpots with long trips to the water source, a river or well, using smaller containers.
(John 2:8) And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor [steward] of the feast. And they bare it [took it to him].
(John 2:9) When the ruler [steward] of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence [from where] it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor [steward] of the feast called the bridegroom,
(John 2:10) And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the good wine until now.
Notice the bridegroom plans the wedding and provides the food and drink. The story ends without hearing his comments. Perhaps he is at fault for not having enough wine; maybe he had obligations to invite more people than he could pay for. If so, perhaps Mary was doing him a favor in inviting extra guests knowing Jesus would then feel compelled to perform this miracle; if there was nearly enough perhaps rationing serving sizes near the end would have been sufficient.
(John 2:11) This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him.
(John 2:12) After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his brethren, and his disciples: and they continued there not many days.
They had just been in Capernaum so they returned back there, presumably to Peter's house.
(John 2:13) And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem,
(John 2:14) And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting:
(John 2:15) And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables;
(John 2:16) And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise.
(John 2:17) And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.
(John 2:18) Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?
(John 2:19) Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.
It seems Jesus is referring to himself as the new temple of Israel. But the chronology is wrong: The temple was indeed destroyed in 70 A.D., but Jesus raised from the dead maybe 40 years earlier at his resurrection.
(John 2:20) Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?
(John 2:21) But he spake of the temple of his body.
(John 2:22) When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.
(John 2:23) Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did.
(John 2:24) But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men,
(John 2:25) And needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man.
(John 3:1) There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:
(John 3:2) The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.
(John 3:3) Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
(John 3:4) Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
Nicodemus refers to human birth, asking for clarification about being born again.
(John 3:5) Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
Neither water nor Spirit refer to human birth; both are elements of being born again. Water is physical; Spirit is, well, spirit. Water probably refers to baptism during which the Holy Spirit invades our soul and mortal sins are remitted. Spirit refers to the transformation in our soul when becoming born again, born from above.
(John 3:6) That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
(John 3:7) Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.
(John 3:8) The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
(John 3:9) Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?
(John 3:10) Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things?
(John 3:11) Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness.
(John 3:12) If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?
The whole discussion about being born again refers to an earthly thing because it occurs while living on this current earth. The heavenly things refers to life after death in the spiritual realm and to the new heavens and new earth.
(John 3:13) And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.
(John 3:14) And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up:
By looking at the serpent on the staff they would be healed. Jesus would be lifted up on the cross to provide for spiritual healing; we are to look upon him on the cross to receive healing. Thus, those who reject the crucifix do so with no good reason. They prefer the symbol of the cross not having the body of Jesus claiming we should emphasize his resurrection and the empty cross, but there is no cross in the resurrection story, only an empty tomb.
(John 3:15) That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.
(John 3:16) For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
Most Christians think of heaven as the location of eternal life, but this is not the case; rather, it is the new heavens and new earth. In fact, the New Testament never once mentions that we go to heaven at all!
The human condition is that we are all perishing under the rule of sin and death caused by original sin. Of course, this rule is in actuality the influence of wicked spirits who have become entangled with our souls in the spiritual realm. In creating the physical universe and all the creatures in it, God allowed Satan to influence all this. Only by God's grace can we escape this.
Because of God's love for us poor hapless humans who must endure this predicament, he provided a way that we can be free from the influences of evil. Since God judges evil, he must judge us also. Without the redemption God provided through the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ, there is no hope. There is still no hope for those who reject this opportunity of escape.
It is my opinion that everyone without exception will encounter Christ at their death and will at that time choose him or reject him. In this life, some have never encountered him yet the New Testament states many times that only through faith in him can we be saved. Many Christians have interpreted this to imply that all who have not heard the gospel are unredeemed. But Romans 1:19-20 states that everyone who is damned for eternity to hell has no excuse except their own rejection of God, and, therefore, their rejection of Christ.
In this verse we learn that Christ is begotten of the Father. We may not think much about this today but for the first few hundred years of church history, the significance of this was argued and contested by the bishops. Finally, we ended up with the Nicene Creed and the doctrine of the Trinity. Some Christians are oblivious to all these foundational aspects of the Christian faith.
It is not God's plan and purpose to judge the wicked, including the wicked spirits in the spiritual realm, this is a side-effect of God's holiness. Sin and wickedness are repulsed by God so when God attempts to come near to those who are entangled with this, they are repulsed into eternal hell. Of course, God is aware of all this and has provided redemption for those who will believe and receive it. God intervened in the world of humans by sending his Son, Jesus Christ, into this world in the form of a human to provide for redemption. This occurred in two ways...
In listening to many Christians talk, you would think that Jesus came into the world to condemn it. But us humans were condemned from the beginning, from the fall of Adam and Eve.
(John 3:18) He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
(John 3:19) And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.
(John 3:20) For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved.
(John 3:21) But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.
(John 3:22) After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judaea [Judea]; and there he tarried with them, and baptized.
(John 3:23) And John also was baptizing in Aenon near to Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were baptized.
(John 3:24) For John was not yet cast into prison.
John the Baptist was imprisoned on the east side of the Dead Sea about 60 miles from Jerusalem.
(John 3:25) Then there arose a question between some of John's disciples and the Jews about purifying.
(John 3:26) And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him.
(John 3:27) John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven.
(John 3:28) Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him.
(John 3:29) He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.
(John 3:30) He must increase, but I must decrease.
(John 3:31) He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all.
(John 3:32) And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth; and no man receiveth his testimony.
(John 3:33) He that hath received his testimony hath set to his seal that God is true.
(John 3:34) For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.
(John 3:35) The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.
(John 3:36) He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.
(John 4:1) When therefore the LORD knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John,
Apparently, converts to Judaism joined via baptism. The Pharisees counted how many people were baptized into John's and Jesus' movements to determine their relative popularity. Perhaps this is why Jesus baptized at all before the coming of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost — to provide a way for people to acknowledge their allegiance to him.
(John 4:2) (Though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples,)
John the baptist did all the baptizing himself; Jesus left this for the disciples and apostles. We should wonder why Jesus baptized at all since the Church was not founded until the day of Pentecost.
The 4 kinds of baptism...
I can imagine Jesus one day taught his disciples to baptize after they inquired about John's baptism and whether followers of Jesus should be baptized. I wonder whether the apostles were baptized at all? perhaps Jesus baptized them or perhaps they baptized each other? But there is no mention of this in the Bible at all.
(John 4:3) He left Judaea [Judea], and departed again into Galilee.
(John 4:4) And he must needs [had to] go through Samaria.
Jesus didn't need to go through Samaria. Usually when travelling from Judea to Galilee, Jews didn't go through Samaria.
(John 4:5) Then cometh he to a city of Samaria, which is called Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph.
(John 4:6) Now Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being wearied with his journey, sat thus on the well: and it was about the sixth hour.
It's about 40 miles from Jerusalem to Sychar. Perhaps this was noon on day two of the journey.
Notice that part of being Jewish is remembering the people and events from their history. Many non-Catholic Christians can't do this because they even deny the Protestant Reformation as part of their heritage.
(John 4:7) There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water: Jesus saith unto her, Give me to drink.
Usually people would do their tasks in groups. Perhaps this woman liked the peace and quiet of being alone, away from the incessant chattering about nothing. Perhaps she was shunned by her community and didn't like listening to the snide and rude remarks when she was in their presence.
Jesus can't draw water himself because equipment is needed, probably a rope and bucket.
(John 4:8) (For his disciples were gone away unto the city to buy meat [food].)
Perhaps the disciples passed the woman on their way into Sychar to buy food. I can imagine they would need to buy food every couple of days when travelling or it would be too heavy to carry.
(John 4:9) Then saith the woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a woman of Samaria? for the Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.
This is a very unusual woman. She immediately discusses deep philosophy, very bold, perhaps even rude. Perhaps this is why she doesn't like the company of the other women and they don't like her company.
(John 4:10) Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water.
The phrase "living water" can mean various things: fresh water from a spring, fresh running water from a creek, water which is needed for life, a metaphor for the Spirit of God which gives spiritual life.
Perhaps the woman thinks Jesus is someone important, a prince or king, or a rich merchant, or an artist, or who know what, maybe even a holy man. Perhaps he was dressed differently than most Jews indicating he was a prophet.
Jesus indicates this interaction with the woman is a gift to her from God, and she immediately understands the significance of the encounter. Many commentaries present this woman as an ill-mannered brash sarcastic person, but this, I think, reflects the general tendency of men (all the commentators are men) who are at heart misogynist pigs. My wife once witnessed at a Southern Baptist Seminary a roomful of men stomping their feet in unison shouting "no women, no women". This is an extreme case, but the tendency within the fundamentalist evangelical Protestant movement is strong.
(John 4:11) The woman saith unto him, Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep: from whence [where from] then hast thou that living water?
The woman had the proper equipment needed to draw water. Not only did she have to carry the water but also the equipment.
Notice the woman sees that, since Jesus can't obtain water from the well, he is referring to some other kind of water, perhaps spiritual water.
This woman is very observant and has a quick wit. She doesn't waste time being confused and disoriented but gets to the heart of the matter instantly. Probably she had a high IQ.
(John 4:12) Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle?
(John 4:13) Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again:
(John 4:15) The woman saith unto him, Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come hither to draw.
(John 4:16) Jesus saith unto her, Go, call thy husband, and come hither.
(John 4:17) The woman answered and said, I have no husband. Jesus said unto her, Thou hast well said, I have no husband:
(John 4:18) For thou hast had five husbands; and he whom thou now hast is not thy husband: in that saidst thou truly.
(John 4:19) The woman saith unto him, Sir, I perceive that thou art a prophet.
(John 4:20) Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship.
(John 4:21) Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father.
(John 4:22) Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews.
(John 4:23) But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him.
(John 4:24) God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.
(John 4:25) The woman saith unto him, I know that Messias [Messiah] cometh, which is called Christ: when he is come, he will tell us all things.
The Greek word "Christ" is a translation of the Hebrew/Aramaic word "Messiah".
(John 4:26) Jesus saith unto her, I that speak unto thee am he.
(John 4:27) And upon this came his disciples, and marvelled that he talked with the woman: yet no man said, What seekest thou? or, Why talkest thou with her?
(John 4:28) The woman then left her waterpot, and went her way into the city, and saith to the men,
(John 4:29) Come, see a man, which told me all things that ever I did: is not this the Christ?
It was common knowledge the things this woman had done and she is not shy about mentioning the topic. Probably she was shunned by them for these things. Perhaps she mentions this so they will forgive her and accept her back into fellowship in the community once they learn that the Messiah first revealed himself to her.
(John 4:30) Then they went out of the city, and came unto him.
(John 4:31) In the mean while his disciples prayed him, saying, Master, eat.
(John 4:32) But he said unto them, I have meat [food] to eat that ye know not of [about].
Perhaps this is the kind of food that will nourish us in the new heavens and new earth. We will not need to eat to nourish our bodies, to provide energy and nutrients. Carnivores and parasites will not need to kill, maim, and devour other creatures. I think we will eat from time to time, vegan diets. We won't need to spend huge amounts of time farming, ranching, hunting, and gathering. Some will farm for enjoyment. Cutting trees and plants don't kill any souls; there is no death in the new heavens and new earth.
(John 4:33) Therefore said the disciples one to another, Hath any man brought him ought [anything] to eat?
(John 4:34) Jesus saith unto them, My meat [food] is to do the will of him that sent me, and to finish [accomplish] his work.
(John 4:35) Say not ye, There are yet four months, and then cometh harvest? behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields; for they are white already to harvest.
(John 4:36) And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal: that both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together.
(John 4:37) And herein is that saying true, One soweth, and another reapeth.
(John 4:38) I sent you to reap that whereon ye bestowed no labour: other men laboured, and ye are entered into their labours.
(John 4:39) And many of the Samaritans of that city believed on him for the saying of the woman, which testified, He told me all that ever I did.
(John 4:40) So when the Samaritans were come unto him, they besought him that he would tarry with them: and he abode there two days.
(John 4:41) And many more believed because of his own word;
(John 4:42) And said unto the woman, Now we believe, not because of thy saying: for we have heard him ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Saviour of the world.
(John 4:43) Now after two days he departed thence, and went into Galilee.
(John 4:44) For Jesus himself testified, that a prophet hath no honour in his own country.
(John 4:45) Then when he was come into Galilee, the Galilaeans received him, having seen all the things that he did at Jerusalem at the feast: for they also went unto the feast.
(John 4:46) So Jesus came again into Cana of Galilee, where he made the water wine. And there was a certain nobleman, whose son was sick at Capernaum.
(John 4:47) When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judaea [Judea] into Galilee, he went unto him, and besought him that he would come down, and heal his son: for he was at the point of death.
(John 4:48) Then said Jesus unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will not believe.
(John 4:49) The nobleman saith unto him, Sir, come down ere my child die.
(John 4:50) Jesus saith unto him, Go thy way; thy son liveth. And the man believed the word that Jesus had spoken unto him, and he went his way.
(John 4:51) And as he was now going down, his servants met him, and told him, saying, Thy son liveth.
(John 4:52) Then inquired he of them the hour when he began to amend. And they said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him.
(John 4:53) So the father knew that it was at the same hour, in the which Jesus said unto him, Thy son liveth: and himself believed, and his whole house.
(John 4:54) This is again the second miracle that Jesus did, when he was come out of Judaea [Judea] into Galilee.
(John 5:1) After this there was a feast of the Jews; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
(John 5:2) Now there is at Jerusalem by the sheep market a pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, having five porches.
(John 5:3) In these lay a great multitude of impotent folk, of blind, halt, withered, waiting for the moving of the water.
(John 5:4) For an angel went down at a certain season into the pool, and troubled the water: whosoever then first after the troubling of the water stepped in was made whole of whatsoever disease he had.
(John 5:5) And a certain man was there, which had an infirmity thirty and eight  years.
If they had wheelchairs in those days his quality of life would surely have been much better.
(John 5:6) When Jesus saw him lie, and knew that he had been now a long time in that case, he saith unto him, Wilt thou be made whole?
(John 5:7) The impotent man answered him, Sir, I have no man, when the water is troubled, to put me into the pool: but while I am coming, another steppeth down before me.
(John 5:8) Jesus saith unto him, Rise, take up thy bed, and walk.
(John 5:9) And immediately the man was made whole, and took up his bed, and walked: and on the same day was the sabbath.
(John 5:10) The Jews therefore said unto him that was cured, It is the sabbath day: it is not lawful for thee to carry thy bed.
(John 5:11) He answered them, He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take up thy bed, and walk.
(John 5:12) Then asked they him, What man is that which said unto thee, Take up thy bed, and walk?
(John 5:13) And he that was healed wist [knew] not who it was: for Jesus had conveyed himself away, a multitude being in that place.
(John 5:14) Afterward Jesus findeth him in the temple, and said unto him, Behold, thou art made whole: sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee.
It sounds like a sin committed by the man caused his injury. Perhaps he was prone to foolish accidents being impulsive and not thinking before acting. Perhaps he could not control his anger and got into fights leading to his serious injury. Perhaps he had been a thief and was seriously injured while escaping with his loot, perhaps by the owner.
(John 5:15) The man departed, and told the Jews that it was Jesus, which had made him whole.
He seeks out the Jewish leaders to tell them who healed him. I would expect him, rather, to be afraid of them and avoid them; they obviously had no love for him. Perhaps this is an example of the kind of thoughtless activity that resulted in his original injury. But I shouldn't judge him so harshly; after lying prone for 38 years he surely had unbounded enthusiasm for activity.
(John 5:16) And therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to slay him, because he had done these things on the sabbath day.
(John 5:17) But Jesus answered them, My Father worketh hitherto, and I work.
Jesus has yet another encounter with these Jews but only his side of the conversation is mentioned.
(John 5:18) Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God.
The Jewish leaders recognized that Jesus was teaching the Trinity, at least the part about the Father and the Son. They are both deity, and they are both separate persons having distinct wills.
(John 5:19) Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.
Jesus clarifies the role of Father and Son. God the Father directs the master plan by actions in the spiritual realm; the Son executes it by actions in our human realm.
(John 5:20) For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth: and he will shew him greater works than these, that ye may marvel.
(John 5:21) For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will.
(John 5:22) For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son:
The Son is the judge, not the Father.
John's gospel says both that Jesus came to judge and that he didn't come to judge. It's hard to interpret these sensibly without jumping through hoops backwards. In my view God doesn't judge anyone, he merely draws close to them to shine his light on them. In doing so their sin is repelled like a magnet — and so are they if they cling to their sin.
(John 5:23) That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him.
A Trinitarian verse. Jesus includes himself as a member of the Godhead, as the Son of God, worthy of the same worship and honor due to God the Father.
(John 5:24) Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life.
Those who hear the words of Jesus and believe in God the Father have eternal life. Notice the redeemed are redeemed in the present moment even though the ultimate experience of eternity in the new heavens and new earth is yet future. Thus, passing from death to life occurs in the soul.
When a person chooses to follow Jesus, the Holy Spirit takes up residence within their soul and the powers of darkness flee. If a person loses their salvation it is because the part of the soul that accepted Jesus wasn't fully converted.
(John 5:25) Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live.
(John 5:26) For as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself;
(John 5:28) Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice,
(John 5:29) And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.
(John 5:31) If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true.
(John 5:32) There is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true.
(John 5:34) But I receive not testimony from man: but these things I say, that ye might be saved.
John the Baptist's testimony of who Jesus was did not originate from John the Baptist. The word of God spoken by prophets originates from God.
(John 5:35) He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light.
(John 5:36) But I have greater witness than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me.
(John 5:37) And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape.
God the Father does not have a human physical form.
Perhaps these Jews were not present when God spoke at the baptism of Jesus; they should have stayed with John the Baptist one more day but they got impatient and left before meeting the person John was telling them about. This indicates they were not visiting John out of faith but, rather, for political motives.
John doesn't mention the baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist.
(John 5:38) And ye have not his word abiding in you: for whom he hath sent, him ye believe not.
(John 5:39) Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.
Jews of today deny any of this exists about Jesus in the Hebrew Bible. Here's the Jewish view of the characteristics of the Messiah...
(John 5:40) And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life.
(John 5:41) I receive not honour from men.
(John 5:42) But I know you, that ye have not the love of God in you.
(John 5:43) I am come in my Father's name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.
(John 5:44) How can ye believe, which receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from God only?
(John 5:45) Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye trust.
Notice Jesus only says of Moses that they trust in his teachings, not that the teachings of Moses are all true. Certainly some are true. Also, Jesus does not dispute whether Moses wrote all of the Torah; if the Jews believed Moses wrote it that's all that matters. The put their faith in Moses and should therefore be judged by whether or not they obey what they claim to believe.
(John 5:47) But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?
If they don't obey the teachings of Moses who they claim to believe, how are they capable of believing anything at all regarding spiritual truth?
(John 6:1) After these things Jesus went over the sea of Galilee, which is the sea of Tiberias.
(John 6:2) And a great multitude followed him, because they saw his miracles which he did on them that were diseased.
(John 6:3) And Jesus went up into a mountain, and there he sat with his disciples.
(John 6:4) And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh [near].
(John 6:5) When Jesus then lifted up his eyes, and saw a great company come unto him, he saith unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat?
(John 6:6) A8i8nd this he said to prove him: for he himself knew what he would do.
(John 6:7) Philip answered him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one of them may take a little.
(John 6:8) One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, saith unto him,
(John 6:9) There is a lad here, which hath five barley loaves, and two small fishes: but what are they among so many?
(John 6:10) And Jesus said, Make the men sit down. Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand.
(John 6:11) And Jesus took the loaves; and when he had given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to them that were set down; and likewise of the fishes as much as they would.
(John 6:12) When they were filled, he said unto his disciples, Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost.
(John 6:13) Therefore they gathered them together, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves, which remained over and above unto them that had eaten.
(John 6:14) Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that prophet that should come into the world.
(John 6:15) When Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and take him by force, to make him a king, he departed again into a mountain himself alone.
(John 6:16) And when even was now come, his disciples went down unto the sea,
(John 6:17) And entered into a ship [boat], and went over the sea toward Capernaum. And it was now dark, and Jesus was not come to them.
I wonder whether these fisherman disciples had their boats handy anytime they were needed. Perhaps they had other fisherman that worked for them who kept the boats nearby and fished nearby. It seems there is always a boat handy when they need it.
(John 6:18) And the sea arose by reason of a great wind that blew.
(John 6:19) So when they had rowed about five and twenty or thirty furlongs, they see Jesus walking on the sea, and drawing nigh [near] unto the ship: and they were afraid.
(John 6:20) But he saith unto them, It is I; be not afraid.
(John 6:21) Then they willingly received him into the ship: and immediately the ship was at the land whither they went.
(John 6:22) The day following, when the people which stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was none other boat there, save that one whereinto his disciples were entered, and that Jesus went not with his disciples into the boat, but that his disciples were gone away alone;
(John 6:23) (Howbeit there came other boats from Tiberias nigh [near] unto the place where they did eat bread, after that the Lord had given thanks:)
(John 6:24) When the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there, neither his disciples, they also took shipping, and came to Capernaum, seeking for Jesus.
(John 6:25) And when they had found him on the other side of the sea, they said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou hither?
(John 6:26) Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of the loaves, and were filled.
(John 6:27) Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you: for him hath God the Father sealed.
(John 6:28) Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we might work the works of God?
(John 6:29) Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent.
(John 6:30) They said therefore unto him, What sign shewest thou then, that we may see, and believe thee? what dost thou work?
(John 6:31) Our fathers did eat manna in the desert; as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat.
(John 6:32) Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven.
(John 6:33) For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world.
(John 6:34) Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread.
(John 6:35) And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.
(John 6:36) But I said unto you, That ye also have seen me, and believe not.
(John 6:37) All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out.
(John 6:38) For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me.
(John 6:39) And this is the Father's will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day.
(John 6:40) And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day.
(John 6:41) The Jews then murmured at him, because he said, I am the bread which came down from heaven.
(John 6:42) And they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? how is it then that he saith, I came down from heaven?
(John 6:43) Jesus therefore answered and said unto them, Murmur not among yourselves.
(John 6:44) No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.
(John 6:45) It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.
(John 6:46) Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which is of God, he hath seen the Father.
(John 6:47) Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me hath everlasting life.
(John 6:48) I am that bread of life.
(John 6:49) Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are dead.
(John 6:50) This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die.
Just as the manna appeared on earth by the miraculous agency of God, so also with the appearance of Jesus, the second person of the Trinity.
Jesus saves us from spiritual death if we eat him spiritually. Spiritual death is the second death, eternal separation from God. This image of eating Jesus as bread is literal just as the second death is literal.
Jesus takes many forms in the spiritual realm. Some examples: slain lamb, rock with flowing water, door. We should meditate on these images, even worship Jesus as these images, just as we should worship Jesus as we imagine him as a child in his mother's arms or in her womb or as a fetus. Fundamentalist evangelical Protestants seem afraid of all this preferring, instead, to limit their interactions with Jesus to his adult life and his current residing in heaven, in the spiritual realm. To illustrate: when you view a painting of the infant Jesus in Mary's arms, why not worship him right then just as you do in the music and singing part of the church service.
(John 6:51) I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.
Jesus took on human nature and a human body — he refers to this as "flesh". In order to have eternal life we are to eat his body which he calls "living bread". I think there are two meanings to this (note: I believe this is to be interpreted literally, not figuratively).
(John 6:52) The Jews therefore strove among themselves, saying, How can this man give us his flesh to eat?
(John 6:53) Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you.
(John 6:54) Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.
(John 6:55) For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed.
(John 6:56) He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him.
(John 6:57) As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me.
(John 6:58) This is that bread which came down from heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever.
(John 6:59) These things said he in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum.
(John 6:60) Many therefore of his disciples, when they had heard this, said, This is an hard saying; who can hear it?
(John 6:61) When Jesus knew in himself that his disciples murmured at it, he said unto them, Doth this offend you?
(John 6:62) What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before?
(John 6:63) It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.
(John 6:64) But there are some of you that believe not. For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were that believed not, and who should betray him.
(John 6:65) And he said, Therefore said I unto you, that no man can come unto me, except it were given [granted] unto him of my Father.
God can prevent you from coming to Jesus, to salvation, if you don't have true faith. In this case, the people directly experienced the miracle of Jesus creating free food but all they wanted afterwards was a steady supply of it; it didn't generate a deep love of God and devotion to him. Wanting continual miracles to relieve our hardship in this life is not what God wants for us. Certainly we are to call out to him for relief from our struggles and hardship, but there must be a deep love of God and of Jesus at the root of this.
(John 6:66) From that time many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him.
(John 6:67) Then said Jesus unto the twelve, Will ye also go away?
(John 6:68) Then Simon Peter answered him, Lord, to whom shall we go? thou hast the words of eternal life.
(John 6:69) And we believe and are sure that thou art that Christ, the Son of the living God.
(John 6:70) Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil?
(John 6:71) He spake of Judas Iscariot the son of Simon: for he it was that should betray him, being one of the twelve.
(John 7:1) After these things Jesus walked in Galilee: for he would not walk in Jewry [Judea], because the Jews sought to kill him.
It's outrageous when religious people are violent with others. Even Christianity is guilty. If the Jewish leaders would have discussed their concerns with Jesus it could have been worked out peacefully. Considerations such as: Roman intervention if there are riots, corrupting Judaism with Jesus' new teaching.
(John 7:2) Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was at hand.
(John 7:3) His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence [from here], and go into Judaea [Judea], that thy disciples also may see the works that thou doest.
(John 7:4) For there is no man that doeth any thing in secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly. If thou do these things, shew thyself to the world.
The KJV wording is awkward. It means, anyone who wants to be known publicly should not do things secretly.
Apparently they don't believe Jesus really did any miracles.
(John 7:5) For neither did his brethren believe in him.
This sentence implies that not only did his brethren not believe in Jesus, others did not believe in him too. Perhaps this refers to Judas or to those in Judea who wanted to kill Jesus, both being just mentioned in the text.
(John 7:6) Then Jesus said unto them, My time is not yet come: but your time is alway ready.
Perhaps Jesus refers to when is the appropriate time to go to Judea: his brethren can go anytime since no one is seeking to kill them, but Jesus must wait until after his enemies have noticed he isn't there so he won't be noticed when he arrives once the activities are underway.
(John 7:7) The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil.
We should live such a life as that the materialistic, atheistic, immoral members of our culture dislike us because of our holiness. I consider much in entertainment, the media, and the internet to be unwholesome, such as: TV, movies, many song lyrics, and even many news and commentary articles. I am horrified that so many Christians are OK with these, even referring to them from the pulpit wanting to be relevant to the culture.
The brethren of Jesus don't have enemies as Jesus does. Jesus has enemies because he testifies that the people of the culture are evil. He is subtly mocking these brethren who don't believe in Jesus by implying that they are evil too, just as the rest of the world is and just as those who wish to kill him are.
(John 7:8) Go ye up unto this feast: I go not up yet unto this feast: for my time is [has] not yet full [fully] come.
It's odd Jesus would skip his obligation under Jewish law to attend this feast. But this verse doesn't say he was skipping it, merely that he wasn't going yet, he wasn't going with the disciples. They probably expected to meet up later with Jesus at the feast. It was common for them to be without Jesus for periods of time.
(John 7:9) When [after] he had said these words unto them, he abode [stayed] still in Galilee.
(John 7:10) But when his brethren were gone up, then went he also up unto the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret.
Jerusalem is at a higher elevation so going there is called "going up", you have to walk uphill.
(John 7:11) Then the Jews sought him at the feast, and said, Where is he?
This event occurs before that of verse 10. First they looked for Jesus at the feast noticing he wasn't there, then after that Jesus went secretly to the feast. It is common for these kinds of verses having out-of-chronological sequence. The reason for these is that the first thought or idea or event is finished even though it is interleaved chronologically with that which follows.
(John 7:12) And there was much murmuring among the people concerning him: for some said, He is a good man: others said, Nay; but he deceiveth the people.
Even when Jesus wasn't even present at the feast he was foremost in their minds.
(John 7:13) Howbeit [nevertheless] no man spake openly of him for fear of the Jews.
(John 7:14) Now about the midst [middle] of the feast Jesus went up into the temple, and taught.
I find it odd that Jesus would have to hide from his enemies at first then teach publicly. Perhaps he was safe once the feast was underway because it would be inappropriate to murder him and cause a public disturbance of the feast. Or perhaps his enemies became less bold fearing the mob once the people at large began publicly discussing who Jesus was.
(John 7:15) And the Jews marvelled, saying, How knoweth this man letters, having never learned?
The word "letters" refers to writings and books — scripture and holy writings — and, presumably, the knowledge you would obtain by studying these via an education. Jesus was self-taught and therefore looked down upon by the religious leaders; they refer to him as "man" rather than what he was — a teacher.
We should wonder how Jesus came to be so educated? Clearly he had access to the scrolls of the Hebrew Bible. Perhaps he also spent time studying with the rabbis in Jerusalem. This is easy to explain if Mary was living as a consecrated virgin in the temple before becoming too old and needing to get married to be taken care of. She would know all the religious leaders and would have been able to leave Jesus with them for extended periods of time, probably while she stayed with Elizabeth in Bethlehem. This also explains why Jesus was conversing in temple when he was accidentally left behind. Probably Jesus also took the apostle John with him which explains how he had access to the high priest.
Probably Jesus was a super genius who had a photographic memory. He got a lot out of his short exposure to the scriptures and to teaching by the rabbis. Probably he spent time with them whenever he was in Jerusalem. Even the apostle John did this apparently.
(John 7:16) Jesus answered them, and said, My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me.
(John 7:17) If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself.
(John 7:18) He that speaketh of himself seeketh his own glory: but he that seeketh his glory that sent him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him.
(John 7:19) Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keepeth the law? Why go ye about to kill me?
(John 7:20) The people answered and said, Thou hast a devil [demon]: who goeth about to kill thee?
(John 7:21) Jesus answered and said unto them, I have done one work, and ye all marvel.
(John 7:24) Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment.
(John 7:25) Then said some of them of Jerusalem, Is not this he, whom they seek to kill?
(John 7:26) But, lo, he speaketh boldly, and they say nothing unto him. Do the rulers know indeed that this is the very Christ?
(John 7:27) Howbeit we know this man whence he is: but when Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is.
(John 7:28) Then cried Jesus in the temple as he taught, saying, Ye both know me, and ye know whence I am: and I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know not.
(John 7:29) But I know him: for I am from him, and he hath sent me.
(John 7:30) Then they sought to take him: but no man laid hands on him, because his hour was not yet come.
(John 7:31) And many of the people believed on him, and said, When Christ cometh, will he do more miracles than these which this man hath done?
(John 7:32) The Pharisees heard that the people murmured such things concerning him; and the Pharisees and the chief priests sent officers to take him.
(John 7:33) Then said Jesus unto them, Yet a little while am I with you, and then I go unto him that sent me.
(John 7:34) Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither ye cannot come.
(John 7:35) Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he go, that we shall not find him? will he go unto the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?
(John 7:36) What manner of saying is this that he said, Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither ye cannot come?
(John 7:37) In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink.
(John 7:38) He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.
They used body parts and internal organs to refer to spiritual aspects of human reality. We do this too with the words heart, head, hands, feet, arms, legs.
The phrase "living water" means "Holy Spirit". Living water is water that is flowing and good to drink, refreshing and not stagnant.
(John 7:39) (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost [Spirit] was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)
(John 7:40) Many of the people therefore, when they heard this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet.
(John 7:41) Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee?
(John 7:42) Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was?
Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Why did they not even bother to ask where he was born? Also, Jesus was a direct descendant of David. Why did they not ask him to recite his lineage? They were so ignorant and unconcerned to know the truth.
(John 7:43) So there was a division among the people because of him.
(John 7:44) And some of them would have taken him; but no man laid hands on him.
(John 7:45) Then came the officers to the chief priests and Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why have ye not brought him?
(John 7:46) The officers answered, Never man spake like this man.
(John 7:47) Then answered them the Pharisees, Are ye also deceived?
(John 7:48) Have any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed on him?
(John 7:49) But this people [crowd] who knoweth not the law are cursed [accursed].
The chief priests and Pharisees are very unpleasant people. If the people don't know the law it reflects a failure of the spiritual leaders who are charged with teaching them. They should love and feed the sheep they have charge over. This reminds me of Christians who think disparagingly of those around them in the culture; or even of those Christians who think other Christians are not saved because they don't believe such and such doctrine.
(John 7:50) Nicodemus saith unto them, (he that came to Jesus by night, being one of them,)
(John 7:51) Doth our law judge any man, before it hear him, and know what he doeth?
(John 7:52) They answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and look: for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.
(John 7:53) And every man went unto his own house.
(John 8:1) Jesus went unto the mount of Olives.
(John 8:2) And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all the people came unto him; and he sat down, and taught them.
(John 8:3) And the scribes and Pharisees brought unto him a woman taken in adultery; and when they had set her in the midst,
(John 8:4) They say unto him, Master, this woman was taken in adultery, in the very act.
(John 8:5) Now Moses in the law commanded us, that such should be stoned: but what sayest thou?
A trick question. The Jews were not allowed to execute people. Jesus turns it back on them by telling them to throw the stones, thereby violating Roman law.
(John 8:6) This they said, tempting him, that they might have to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground, as though he heard them not.
Writes on the ground — perhaps with small letters at first, then ever bigger, very theatrical. Perhaps the names of people or clues of events they wouldn't want made public. Perhaps the Roman law regarding whether the Jews can execute someone.
The woman — perhaps she was poor and they offered her money to trap her. And where is the man? Do they really think Jesus won't mention the man? Yet he doesn't.
(John 8:7) So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.
Apparently only God should judge sin. We can judge when people harm others in the context of society and civilization, but this incident was likely a setup, to trap Jesus, harming the woman in the process with no concern for her in the slightest.
The Mosaic Law says nothing of whether only people without sin can participate in stoning people for capital offences; they should have mentioned this to Jesus. Perhaps they were so used to adding to the Law they didn't notice what Jesus was saying.
(John 8:8) And again he stooped down, and wrote on the ground.
(John 8:9) And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.
(John 8:10) When Jesus had lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, he said unto her, Woman, where are those thine accusers? hath no man condemned thee?
Jesus equates the accusers with those executing the punishment. Stoning was a community activity. If someone was unwilling to execute the punishment themselves they did not qualify as an accuser. Notice they were unwilling to turn over the woman to the Romans for judgment. Perhaps the man involved was not someone they wanted to become a criminal. Likely the Romans did not consider adultery as a capital offense and would not have even accepted such a case.
God forgives those who repent. I'm sure she learned her lesson — not to trust the religious leaders who merely used her for their own purposes.
(John 8:12) Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.
(John 8:13) The Pharisees therefore said unto him, Thou bearest record of thyself; thy record is not true.
(John 8:14) Jesus answered and said unto them, Though I bear record of myself, yet my record is true: for I know whence I came, and whither I go; but ye cannot tell whence I come, and whither I go.
(John 8:15) Ye judge after the flesh; I judge no man.
Jesus is referring to people who are judging him based on various human criteria such as his pedigree in the religious community of the day. He doesn't judge that way; he judges by a person's faith in God.
(John 8:17) It is also written in your law, that the testimony of two men is true.
(John 8:18) I am one that bear witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me.
(John 8:19) Then said they unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, Ye neither know me, nor my Father: if ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also.
(John 8:20) These words spake Jesus in the treasury, as he taught in the temple: and no man laid hands on him; for his hour was not yet come.
(John 8:21) Then said Jesus again unto them, I go my way, and ye shall seek me, and shall die in your sins: whither I go, ye cannot come.
(John 8:22) Then said the Jews, Will he kill himself? because he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come.
(John 8:23) And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world.
(John 8:24) I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins.
(John 8:25) Then said they unto him, Who art thou? And Jesus saith unto them, Even the same that I said unto you from the beginning.
(John 8:26) I have many things to say and to judge of you: but he that sent me is true; and I speak to the world those things which I have heard of him.
(John 8:27) They understood not that he spake to them of the Father.
(John 8:28) Then said Jesus unto them, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am he, and that I do nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these things.
Jesus is addressing the Jewish leaders. There is no mention of whether they understood what he said. If they were planning on executing him they probably had considered that the Romans would have to do it and it would be via crucifixion since Jesus was not a Roman citizen and would therefore be crucified.
It is unclear how they would know that Jesus was the "I am" from the crucifixion. Perhaps for those who believed the resurrection actually occurred, they would accept Jesus' claims of himself — some of the Jewish leaders did finally come to faith in Jesus.
God the Father directed the activities of Jesus.
(John 8:29) And he that sent me is with me: the Father hath not left me alone; for I do always those things that please him.
(John 8:30) As he spake these words, many believed on him.
To be a disciple of Jesus, merely follow his word — that's all there is to it. Now that we have the Bible, reading it, studying it, meditating on it; this is almost all we need, except to live a life of virtue.
(John 8:32) And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.
It's all about truth, about infallibility. Jesus tells those Jews who believed in him that they are in bondage but will be free if they continue in the faith. It seems odd that he expresses this in terms of their continuing in his word; this implies that we are not actually set free until death when judgment occurs based on how well we continued in his word. This is not a message that most Protestants want to hear.
(John 8:33) They answered him, We be Abraham's seed, and were never in bondage to any man: how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free?
(John 8:34) Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin.
(John 8:35) And the servant abideth not in the house for ever: but the Son abideth ever.
(John 8:36) If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.
(John 8:37) I know that ye are Abraham's seed; but ye seek to kill me, because my word hath no place in you.
(John 8:38) I speak that which I have seen with my Father: and ye do that which ye have seen with your father.
(John 8:39) They answered and said unto him, Abraham is our father. Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham.
(John 8:40) But now ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth, which I have heard of God: this did not Abraham.
(John 8:41) Ye do the deeds of your father. Then said they to him, We be not born of fornication; we have one Father, even God.
(John 8:42) Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me: for I proceeded forth and came from God; neither came I of myself, but he sent me.
(John 8:43) Why do ye not understand my speech? even because ye cannot hear my word.
(John 8:44) Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.
How was Satan a murderer from the beginning? Who did he kill? In tempting Eve he brought death into the world.
Jesus is referring to spiritual fatherhood just as he refers to God being his father and just as they refer to Abraham being their father.
Notice that in choosing to be loyal to Satan's kingdom of darkness, his lusts become their lusts. He influences them because their souls are tangled-up with the spirits of wickedness residing in the spiritual realm. Yet these Jewish leaders think they are the spiritual leaders of Israel. In exploiting the innocent and weak, they prove whose kingdom they really belong to. In studying church history we should look to how the church leaders treated the people to determine whether they were really representatives of God's true Church.
(John 8:45) And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not.
(John 8:46) Which of you convinceth me of sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me?
(John 8:47) He that is of God heareth God's words: ye therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God.
(John 8:48) Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil?
(John 8:49) Jesus answered, I have not a devil; but I honour my Father, and ye do dishonour me.
(John 8:50) And I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth.
Notice we must do something to avoid death.
(John 8:52) Then said the Jews unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil [demon]. Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my saying, he shall never taste of death.
They remark that Abraham and the prophets have died, yet Jesus claims it's possible for the righteous to not die. So why are they dead since they were righteous?
(John 8:53) Art thou greater than our father Abraham, which is dead? and the prophets are dead: whom makest thou thyself?
(John 8:54) Jesus answered, If I honour myself, my honour is nothing: it is my Father that honoureth me; of whom ye say, that he is your God:
(John 8:55) Yet ye have not known him; but I know him: and if I should say, I know him not, I shall be a liar like unto you: but I know him, and keep his saying.
(John 8:56) Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad.
(John 8:57) Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty  years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?
Why would they think someone 50 years old could see Abraham? Perhaps they mean to say he would have to be over 2,000 years old to have seen Abraham? They are so ignorant about Jesus they don't even bother to find out where he was born or how old he is; they play it safe, certain he is less than 50 years old.
(John 8:58) Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.
(John 8:59) Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by.
(John 9:1) And as Jesus passed by, he saw a man which was blind from his birth.
(John 9:2) And his disciples asked him, saying, Master, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind?
(John 9:3) Jesus answered, Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him.
(John 9:4) I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.
While Jesus was physically present in the world as a human he did the work of God the Father. Once he left earth, no one could do these same works. Some ultra-charismatics claim to do the same miraculous works as Jesus but this verse refutes the practice — only Jesus can do the works of Jesus.
When Jesus died at the hands of unbelievers this ushered in an era of darkness, of night, of rejection of Jesus which still continues to this day.
Day is followed by night. In the day, Jesus can do his work; at night, he cannot. There was not to be a soon-appearing utopian kingdom of God ushered in by the Messiah as some thought. This utopia exists only in the new heavens and earth. Certainly the gospel shines light into the world and casts away darkness but the final fulfillment of the kingdom of God awaits the second coming of Christ.
God is good and God is light. When confronted with the pain, suffering, evil, and sin of the world, God merely sees it as an opportunity to heal and bless — and to judge to wicked.
The people of the day apparently had the mistaken idea that if someone has misfortune in their lives it is caused by the sin of their parents or by their own sin. This is similar to the word-faith health-wealth idea that we are to use the power of our faith to attract blessings from God and that misfortune is caused by our own lack of faith by letting the powers of wickedness in the spiritual realm tromp all over us.
(John 9:5) As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.
(John 9:6) When he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay,
(John 9:7) And said unto him, Go, wash in the pool of Siloam, (which is by interpretation, Sent.) He went his way therefore, and washed, and came seeing.
(John 9:8) The neighbours therefore, and they which before had seen him that he was blind, said, Is not this he that sat and begged?
(John 9:9) Some said, This is he: others said, He is like him: but he said, I am he.
(John 9:10) Therefore said they unto him, How were thine eyes opened?
(John 9:11) He answered and said, A man that is called Jesus made clay, and anointed mine eyes, and said unto me, Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash: and I went and washed, and I received sight.
(John 9:12) Then said they unto him, Where is he? He said, I know not.
(John 9:13) They brought to the Pharisees him that aforetime [before] was blind.
Weird that the Jewish leaders felt they had the right to summon him and that he felt compelled to go. Religions are often controlling and cult-like.
It doesn't say who brought the man before the Pharisees or why. Probably, the Pharisees commanded everyone who knew the man and they did it in fear of being banished from fellowship.
(John 9:14) And it was the sabbath day when Jesus made the clay, and opened his eyes.
(John 9:15) Then again the Pharisees also asked him how he had received his sight. He said unto them, He put clay upon mine eyes, and I washed, and do see.
(John 9:16) Therefore said some of the Pharisees, This man is not of God, because he keepeth not the sabbath day. Others said, How can a man that is a sinner do such miracles? And there was a division among them.
They have added to the law which nowhere forbids of healing on the Sabbath, nor of making a small amount of mud, nor of walking the short distance to the pool of Siloam, nor of washing.
The religious leaders are concerned because the people at large look to miracles as evidence of spiritual authority, undermining their authority. Even some of the religious leaders think of miracles this way. Those wishing to remain in control merely assign the cause of the miracle to the power of Satan. Notice these believe that the wicked sprits can intervene in the physical realm. Of course they can; I believe this too.
Apparently, those who didn't consider Jesus to be a sinner were not impressed with the ridiculous claim that Jesus had violated the Sabbath. Sometimes those in power say the most ridiculous things with no concern of the truthfulness or sensibility.
(John 9:17) They say unto the blind man again, What sayest thou of him, that he hath opened thine eyes? He said, He is a prophet.
(John 9:18) But the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and received his sight, until they called the parents of him that had received his sight.
The word "until" doesn't imply there was a change of condition afterwards. In this case, they didn't believe them after this either.
(John 9:19) And they asked them, saying, Is this your son, who ye say was born blind? how then doth he now see?
(John 9:20) His parents answered them and said, We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind:
(John 9:21) But by what means he now seeth, we know not; or who hath opened his eyes, we know not: he is of age; ask him: he shall speak for himself.
(John 9:22) These words spake his parents, because they feared the Jews: for the Jews had agreed already, that if any man did confess that he was Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue.
(John 9:23) Therefore said his parents, He is of age; ask him.
(John 9:24) Then again called they the man that was blind, and said unto him, Give God the praise: we know that this man is a sinner.
(John 9:25) He answered and said, Whether he be a sinner or no, I know not: one thing I know, that, whereas I was blind, now I see.
(John 9:26) Then said they to him again, What did he to thee? how opened he thine eyes?
(John 9:27) He answered them, I have told you already, and ye did not hear: wherefore would ye hear it again? will ye also be his disciples?
(John 9:28) Then they reviled him, and said, Thou art his disciple; but we are Moses' disciples.
(John 9:29) We know that God spake unto Moses: as for this fellow, we know not from whence he is.
(John 9:30) The man answered and said unto them, Why herein is a marvellous thing, that ye know not from whence he is, and yet he hath opened mine eyes.
(John 9:31) Now we know that God heareth not sinners: but if any man be a worshipper of God, and doeth his will, him he heareth.
The man knew God hears those who worship him and who do his will. Sinners don't worship God nor do they do his will, and so, God doesn't hear them. Notice that their sin causes their separation from God. God does not sit as judge in a courtroom judging them, rather, their sin repels their soul away from God's holy presence.
(John 9:32) Since the world began was it not heard that any man opened the eyes of one that was born blind.
(John 9:33) If this man were not of God, he could do nothing.
(John 9:34) They answered and said unto him, Thou wast altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they cast him out.
(John 9:35) Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and when he had found him, he said unto him, Dost thou believe on the Son of God?
(John 9:36) He answered and said, Who is he, Lord, that I might believe on him?
(John 9:37) And Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and it is he that talketh with thee.
(John 9:38) And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him.
We should wonder of the nature of this man's worship. Perhaps he bowed down, even touching Jesus' feet. Probably some vocal utterances, acknowledging him as Son of God. Maybe shouting out to others of who Jesus is and what he did. Likely aware that his original sin was forgiven, that God loved him. The man already worshipped God and did his will; now he recognizes Jesus as God, worthy of worship. Thus, the phrase "Son of God" means "God".
(John 9:39) And Jesus said, For judgment I am come into this world, that they which see not might see; and that they which see might be made blind.
(John 9:40) And some of the Pharisees which were with him heard these words, and said unto him, Are we blind also?
(John 9:41) Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye should have no sin: but now ye say, We see; therefore your sin remaineth.
You can only sin willfully, knowing right from wrong and choosing to do the wrong. This is why a baby throwing food or a dog eating your slippers is not sinning; neither are spiritually aware of God's moral law.
(John 10:1) Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.
(John 10:2) But he that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep.
(John 10:3) To him the porter openeth; and the sheep hear his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out.
(John 10:4) And when he putteth forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him: for they know his voice.
(John 10:5) And a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him: for they know not the voice of strangers.
(John 10:6) This parable spake Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them.
(John 10:7) Then said Jesus unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep.
(John 10:8) All that ever came before me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them.
(John 10:9) I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture.
(John 10:10) The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly.
In rejecting God, Lucifer took on characteristics outside of God, things God can never directly experience. In this way Lucifer became like god (or so he thinks). God provided and allowed for the possibility of his created creatures through free will to experience things God himself can never experience. These things are called sin, to do what God never will.
God does not cause pain and suffering. God doesn't send people to hell, rather, they choose to go there themselves by rejecting God. Their sin is repulsed by God's light and as they cling to it they are repulsed as well. All they have to do is let go of sin and choose God's goodness and beauty.
(John 10:11) I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.
(John 10:12) But he that is an hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth: and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep.
(John 10:13) The hireling fleeth, because he is an hireling, and careth not for the sheep.
(John 10:14) I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine.
(John 10:15) As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep.
(John 10:16) And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.
Perhaps Jesus is referring to the Gentiles.
(John 10:17) Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again.
(John 10:18) No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father.
(John 10:19) There was a division therefore again among the Jews for these sayings.
(John 10:20) And many of them said, He hath a devil, and is mad; why hear ye him?
(John 10:21) Others said, These are not the words of him that hath a devil. Can a devil open the eyes of the blind?
(John 10:22) And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication, and it was winter.
The feast of dedication is Hanukkah described in the books of 1 and 2 Maccabees, part of the deuterocanonical books, also called the apocrypha.
Depending on how you define winter, whether it starts on the winter solstice or some other date, it seems you could use this verse to date this event since Hanukkah sometimes ends before the winter solstice.
(John 10:23) And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch.
(John 10:24) Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly.
They were looking for a political Messiah to throw off Roman rule. Jesus had done nothing to indicate he was such a person; no transition had yet occurred (and never would).
(John 10:25) Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not: the works that I do in my Father's name, they bear witness of me.
(John 10:26) But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you.
(John 10:27) My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:
(John 10:28) And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.
(John 10:29) My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand.
(John 10:30) I and my Father are one.
(John 10:31) Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him.
(John 10:32) Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?
(John 10:33) The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.
God allows his created souls to participate in his creative activity. In this sense humans and the angels are "gods". I should point out that we are not the Lord God Almighty; rather, God has created us with certain powers and abilities. One of these is the power to participate in God's moment-by-moment creative activity.
(John 10:35) If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken;
Jesus is claiming the Old Testament as the infallible word of God. At this time the Jews had already packaged the Old Testament scriptures into a book. The Septuagint contains the extra books that Catholics include in their version of the Bible.
(John 10:36) Say ye of him, whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God?
(John 10:37) If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not.
(John 10:38) But if I do, though ye believe not me, believe the works: that ye may know, and believe, that the Father is in me, and I in him.
(John 10:39) Therefore they sought again to take him: but he escaped out of their hand,
(John 10:40) And went away again beyond Jordan into the place where John at first baptized; and there he abode.
(John 10:41) And many resorted unto him, and said, John did no miracle: but all things that John spake of this man were true.
(John 10:42) And many believed on him there.
This account is not present in Matthew, Mark, or Luke. One of John's goals in his gospel is to add events that were left out of the other gospels. That is why the content and story line seems so choppy and has a rough cohesion.
(John 11:1) Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha.
(John 11:3) Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick.
(John 11:4) When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby.
Everything glorious and beautiful and holy in our lives is for the purpose of giving glory to God, to Jesus.
(John 11:5) Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus.
(John 11:6) When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was.
Jesus was not in Judea at the time. The sisters of Lazarus sent others to make the 30 mile journey to Bethabara. They apparently knew he was there, perhaps because they had just been with him and knew his plans.
Some say Jesus waited to give time for Lazarus to die, but I doubt this is the reason. Perhaps Jesus was involved in a devotional activity taking a predetermined number of days to complete. Or perhaps he didn't want to interrupt his ministry there since some had likely travelled long distance to see him. Probably Jesus could not have made it to Bethany before Lazarus died since it would take at least 2 days to make the round trip.
(John 11:7) Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judaea [Judea] again.
(John 11:8) His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again?
(John 11:9) Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.
(John 11:10) But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him.
(John 11:11) These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep.
(John 11:12) Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well.
(John 11:13) Howbeit [now] Jesus spake [spoke] of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep.
(John 11:14) Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead.
(John 11:15) And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him.
(John 11:16) Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellowdisciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him.
(John 11:17) Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already.
(John 11:18) Now Bethany was nigh [near] unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs [2 miles] off:
(John 11:19) And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother.
(John 11:20) Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house.
(John 11:21) Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.
(John 11:22) But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee.
(John 11:23) Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again.
(John 11:24) Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.
Martha knew there would be a final resurrection of all the redeemed because Jesus taught it. This implies she knew there would be an eternal new heavens and new earth — what possible use would it be to have a resurrected body without a renewed earth to enjoy with it?
(John 11:25) Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:
(John 11:26) And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?
(John 11:27) She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world.
Martha knows that the Messiah would somehow lead to the resurrection and that Jesus was this Messiah. She learned this from Jesus earlier because the Jewish leaders were certainly not teaching such things about the Messiah. In their view the Messiah would be a mere human, a political leader who would free Jerusalem from the Romans.
Notice that the Messiah, the Christ, is the Son of God, a special unique person who would come into the world.
(John 11:28) And when she had so said, she went her way, and called Mary her sister secretly, saying, The Master is come, and calleth for thee.
(John 11:29) As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, and came unto him.
(John 11:30) Now Jesus was not yet come into the town, but was in that place where Martha met him.
(John 11:31) The Jews then which were with her in the house, and comforted her, when they saw Mary, that she rose up hastily and went out, followed her, saying, She goeth unto the grave to weep there.
(John 11:32) Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, and saw him, she fell down at his feet, saying unto him, Lord, if thou hadst [had] been here, my brother had not [would not have] died.
Mary knew Jesus could have healed Lazarus so he wouldn't have died. Perhaps she is also gently coaxing him to raise him from the dead, hoping he can do such a thing. He had raised people from the dead before.
According to Charismatic teaching, groaning in the Spirit is a gift of the Spirit related to speaking in tongues; people who groan in the Spirit usually also speak in tongues, often in the same session. Jesus was not speaking in tongues, rather, he was deeply moved with intense emotion.
(John 11:34) And said, Where have ye laid him? They said unto him, Lord, come and see.
(John 11:35) Jesus wept.
(John 11:36) Then said the Jews, Behold how he loved him!
(John 11:37) And some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that even this man should not have died?
(John 11:39) Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath been dead four days.
(John 11:40) Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God?
(John 11:41) Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me.
(John 11:42) And I knew that thou hearest me always: but because of the people which stand by I said it, that they may believe that thou hast sent me.
(John 11:43) And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.
(John 11:44) And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes: and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go.
(John 11:45) Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on him.
(John 11:46) But some of them went their ways to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done.
(John 11:47) Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many miracles.
(John 11:48) If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation.
(John 11:49) And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all,
(John 11:50) Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.
(John 11:51) And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;
(John 11:52) And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.
(John 11:53) Then from that day forth they took counsel together for to put him to death.
(John 11:54) Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews; but went thence unto a country near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples.
(John 11:55) And the Jews' passover was nigh [near] at hand: and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the passover, to purify themselves.
Notice John distinguishes two Passovers: (1) the Jews', and (2) another one, probably the Essenes. Jesus celebrated the last supper as an Essene Passover.
(John 11:56) Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among themselves, as they stood in the temple, What think ye, that he will not come to the feast?
They were not certain whether Jesus would attend the Jews' Passover. Perhaps he did not in years past either.
(John 11:57) Now both the chief priests and the Pharisees had given a commandment, that, if any man knew where he were, he should shew it, that they might take him.
Apparently a similar event involving anointing Jesus with perfume occurred three times...
(John 12:1) Then Jesus six days before the passover came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, which had been dead, whom he raised from the dead.
(John 12:2) There they made him a supper; and Martha served: but Lazarus was one of them that sat at the table with him.
Martha served, and her brother Lazarus attended.
(John 12:4) Then saith one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, which should betray him,
(John 12:5) Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor?
(John 12:6) This he said, not that he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and had the bag, and bare [pilfered] what was put therein.
Judas was a phoney. He pretended one thing but plotted another.
(John 12:7) Then said Jesus, Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this.
(John 12:8) For the poor always ye have with you; but me ye have not always.
(John 12:9) Much people of the Jews therefore knew that he was there: and they came not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he had raised from the dead.
Lazarus became an instant celebrity once he had been raised from the dead. Suddenly the people were coming to see Lazarus instead of Jesus. This reminds me of some devotions in which Mary or a Saint or a devotional becomes the focus instead Jesus and our hearing his teaching and our worshipping him.
(John 12:10) But the chief priests consulted that they might put Lazarus also to death;
(John 12:11) Because that by reason of him many of the Jews went away, and believed on Jesus.
(John 12:12) On the next day much people that were come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem,
These seem to be pilgrims coming to Jerusalem for the feast. But how would they have heard about Jesus? Perhaps these were not those condemning Jesus to death before Pilate; probably those were residents of Jerusalem who the high priest had a lot of influence over. He could destroy the lives of dissenters.
We should wonder what the people wanted Jesus to save them from when crying out, hosanna? In the Psalms, it's used for saving from enemies or oppressors or troubles (poverty, hunger, sickness, the struggles of life). Perhaps they imagined Jesus would establish a glorious utopian kingdom of peace and prosperity. Certainly he does this in the new heavens and new earth.
(John 12:14) And Jesus, when he had found a young ass [donkey], sat thereon; as it is written,
(John 12:16) These things understood not his disciples at the first: but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things unto him.
(John 12:17) The people therefore that was with him when he called Lazarus out of his grave, and raised him from the dead, bare record.
(John 12:18) For this cause the people also met him, for that they heard that he had done this miracle.
(John 12:19) The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, Perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? behold, the world is gone after him.
The goal of the Pharisees was to get rid of Jesus, not in discovering the truth. Jesus made claims from the Old Testament which they could have used to verify his claims. But they didn't even bother to learn that he was born in Bethlehem.
This is another of the verses in which the word "all" or something like it is used to refer to something other than "every last one". This is so common I'm surprised that some people pretend the world "all" always means every last one when it is convenient to prove some pet theory.
(John 12:20) And there were certain Greeks among them that came up to worship at the feast:
(John 12:21) The same came therefore to Philip, which was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and desired him, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus.
(John 12:22) Philip cometh and telleth Andrew: and again Andrew and Philip tell Jesus.
(John 12:23) And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified.
(John 12:24) Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit.
(John 12:25) He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal.
(John 12:26) If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will my Father honour.
(John 12:27) Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour.
(John 12:28) Father, glorify thy name. Then came there a voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.
(John 12:29) The people therefore, that stood by, and heard it, said that it thundered: others said, An angel spake to him.
(John 12:30) Jesus answered and said, This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes.
(John 12:32) And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me.
(John 12:33) This he said, signifying what death he should die.
(John 12:34) The people answered him, We have heard out of the law that Christ abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man?
(John 12:35) Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth.
(John 12:36) While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light. These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them.
(John 12:37) But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him:
(John 12:38) That the saying of Esaias [Isaiah] the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?
(John 12:39) Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias [Isaiah] said again,
(John 12:41) These things said Esaias [Isaiah], when he saw his glory, and spake of him.
(John 12:42) Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess him, lest they should be put out of the synagogue:
(John 12:43) For they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God.
(John 12:44) Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me.
(John 12:45) And he that seeth me seeth him that sent me.
(John 12:46) I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth on me should not abide in darkness.
(John 12:47) And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.
(John 12:49) For I have not spoken of myself; but the Father which sent me, he gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak.
(John 12:50) And I know that his commandment is life everlasting: whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the Father said unto me, so I speak.
The key events of the Last Supper in proper chronological sequence (there are differences in the sequences among the 4 gospels for the sake of emphasizing and grouping topics)...
(John 13:1) Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end.
This is the last supper in which Jesus instituted the Eucharist but I doubt he intended to institute ceremonial foot washing; if he did we should do it every Sunday along with the Eucharist. The Eucharist was instituted in the context of the Jewish Passover which occurs yearly. We should ask why the Eucharist was to be weekly rather than yearly but the church practiced it weekly, even daily, from the very beginning.
(John 13:2) And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him;
(John 13:3) Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God;
(John 13:4) He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded himself.
(John 13:5) After that he poureth water into a bason [basin], and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded.
Likely their feet needed washing since they walked on dusty roads in sandals.
I doubt if Jesus intended to establish a foot washing ceremony in which local church leaders wash one foot of twelve members of the congregation or in which the pope washes the feet of men and women Muslim prisoners. I'm not saying that it is wrong to do this, merely that this was not established by Jesus as a ceremony to be practiced.
(John 13:6) Then cometh he to Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet?
(John 13:7) Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter.
(John 13:8) Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me.
(John 13:9) Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head.
(John 13:10) Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all.
Only their feet needed washing. The word clean is used to mean physical cleanliness and ceremonial cleanliness. Jesus switches meanings mid-sentence.
(John 13:11) For he knew who should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.
(John 13:12) So after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you?
(John 13:13) Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am.
(John 13:14) If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another's feet.
The disciples are to wash each others' feet when they become dusty. It is too hard to wash your own feet, easier if people wash each others'. Also, there was class pride involved since the servants often performed this role. Jesus wants them to serve each other with real service, not phony, made-up ceremonial service. I suppose this example applies to all Christians who should serve one another in love, doing things that truly help one another, not just showy things of no substance.
(John 13:15) For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.
Jesus often teaches by example: he does something which they are to model.
(John 13:16) Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him.
Jesus is careful to clarify that he is not doing away with social roles and class structures; the master is greater than the servant.
Jesus considers God the Father to be greater than himself, to be greater than God the incarnate Son. Certainly in his role as Messiah in human flesh he was humbled. As second person of the Trinity he was equal to the Father, but the members of the Trinity have eternal relationships and roles among each other: Jesus is the Son of the Father; the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father. In this sense, the Father is greater because his role is "highest". In fact, the Eastern Churches consider the Fatherhood of God the Father as the source of unity among the Trinity rather than the Western idea of the members of the Trinity having the same "substance" (I don't think they meant a material substance but, rather, a spiritual substance. I reject this Western view, but I also reject the Eastern view. The three members of the Trinity are in Unity because they are all equally deity, that's all there is to it.)
(John 13:17) If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them.
(John 13:18) I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me.
(John 13:19) Now I tell you before it come, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am he.
(John 13:20) Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.
(John 13:21) When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.
(John 13:22) Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting of whom he spake.
(John 13:23) Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved.
The ceremonial supper has been over for a while; Jesus washed their feet; and they are back around the table chatting and snacking.
Apparently they are not sitting in chairs modern-style but are lying on their sides and eating mostly with one hand while propping themselves up with the other forearm. John happens to be next to Jesus with his back to him and he leans back to speak to him. Probably John was much younger than the others and this kind of affection was accepted.
People usually assume they are all clustered around a low table. But it would be easier to eat if the food were at the same level as their hands and bodies. And they would be more comfortable if they were lying on mats with the food sitting on a hard surface so it would not spill. And it would be much easier if they were several feet off the ground with an open area shaped like the letter "U" where their heads were having a lower shelf to place things on. A servant would bring things to them placing dishes or cups on the hard surface near their hands and storing pitchers and bowls having food on the shelf below. This raised dining platform was likely a permanent feature constructed of stone.
(John 13:24) Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of whom he spake.
(John 13:25) He then lying on Jesus' breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it?
(John 13:26) Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give a sop [piece of bread for dipping], when I have dipped it. And when he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.
Probably the servants usually passed food to them so this was unusual for Jesus to pass a piece of bread. Perhaps Judas was next to Jesus or perhaps Jesus got up and handed him the bread.
(John 13:27) And after the sop [piece of bread for dipping] Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do quickly.
Likely, Judas heard Jesus' comment that the person who received the dipped bread would betray him. He had been already seriously considering betraying Jesus and planning how to do it, probably even from the time of the woman anointing Jesus with perfume. When the dipped bread was presented it forced him to choose: either refuse it and thereby decide to abandon his plan and remain true to Jesus, or accept it and become the betrayer.
It should be shocking to us to learn that in apostatizing from the faith, from abandoning Jesus, we actually invite Satan into us. In accepting Christ as savior, the Holy Spirit invades our soul residing in the spiritual realm, pushing out the influence of the wicked spirits. In abandoning the faith, the Holy Spirit vacates much as during the exit of the Shekinah glory from the temple.
Jesus knew the timing of his death, during the Passover, specifically on the day the passover lambs were being slaughtered. He encouraged Judas to maintain his resolve and not delay, hoping for some psychologically safer timing.
Probably Judas had been expecting Jesus to be a Jewish kind of Messiah who would take political control of Jerusalem and cast off the Roman yoke. But when Jesus rode into the city on an donkey, meek and lowly, Judas' hopes and dreams were dashed. He had coveted being somebody important in the new Jewish government and was a follower of Jesus merely for fame and glory.
(John 13:28) Now no man at the table knew for what intent he spake this unto him.
(John 13:29) For some of them thought, because Judas had the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those things that we have need of against the feast; or, that he should give something to the poor.
This is the only verse I know of hinting that Jesus gave money to the poor.
(John 13:30) He then having received the sop [piece of bread for dipping] went immediately out: and it was night.
The rest of Jesus' speeches were given to the 11 apostles only; maybe other disciples were also present.
(John 13:31) Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him.
The train of events initiated by Judas' betrayal would lead to Jesus being glorified.
(John 13:32) If God be glorified in him, God shall also glorify him in himself, and shall straightway [immediately] glorify him.
(John 13:33) Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me: and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; so now I say to you.
(John 13:34) A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.
(John 13:35) By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.
(John 13:36) Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards.
It is noteworthy that Peter did not ask Jesus about God being glorified by all this from verse 32. His is concerned only with Jesus' person and activities; the philosophical and theological musings appear lost on him.
Some day we will each one of us follow Jesus into the realm of death. Peter seems to clearly understand that Jesus is referring to some soon-future events that will result in his death. Jesus confirms that the 11 would follow him into this but it wasn't clear to them how Jesus could be the Messiah who freed the nation of Israel from the yoke of the Romans and yet die. Earlier the apostles hoped to rule with Jesus in this kingdom. They thought Jesus' glory consisted in his ruling in this world. I suspect they are very bewildered at this point and all they can think and say is to follow Jesus into they know not what at a soon-future time they know not when having an outcome they can't imagine. But in devotion to Jesus they want to be a part of it all and bravely will give up their life for it.
(John 13:37) Peter said unto him, Lord, why cannot I follow thee now? I will lay down my life for thy sake.
Ultimately, Peter was martyred for Jesus in 66 A.D. in Rome by the madman Nero.
(John 13:38) Jesus answered him, Wilt thou lay down thy life for my sake? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, The cock shall not crow, till thou hast denied me thrice.
(John 14:1) Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me.
(John 14:2) In my Father's house are many mansions [dwelling places]: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.
The mansions referred to are in the spiritual realm. We have a spiritual body in the spiritual realm corresponding to our physical body and associated with our soul which also resides in the spiritual realm. When we arrive there after death, Jesus will have prepared a place for us. But our ultimate destination is the new heavens and new earth.
(John 14:3) And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also.
Jesus comes for each person at their death to receive them into their new home in the spiritual realm.
Notice that Jesus comes again. This is not the rapture (there is no such event) nor the second coming.
(John 14:4) And whither I go ye know, and the way ye know.
They should have by now known were Jesus was going and how they would follow him there. Jesus is teaching about salvation from the effects of sin which is eternal separation from God. The role of the apostles would be to faithfully transmit this message of salvation, the gospel, and to establish Churches teaching this. Jesus had already modelled this for them in sending them out 2 by 2.
(John 14:5) Thomas saith unto him, Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how can we know the way?
I think Thomas was asking the questions everyone else wanted to know; he verbalized what they were afraid to ask. Basically he contradicted Jesus' statement in the previous verse. Jesus said they knew these things, Thomas said they don't know.
Thomas was always willing to say the unsaid, to blurt out what he was thinking no matter how crazy it might sound and no matter how scrambled his thinking might be. I think a better title for him than "doubting Thomas" is "Thomas the impulsive". I wonder who was more impulsive, Peter or Thomas?
(John 14:6) Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.
Our final destination is to be in the presence of God the Father. This implies we are currently not in his presence. We should, therefore, someday expect a radical transformation in our experience, from darkness to light. We will be introduced to the changes gradually: at death we will meet Jesus; in purgatory as we slowly shed the impediments keeping us from perfection; finally a new resurrection body and our glorious eternal home in the new heavens and new earth.
Jesus is our guide; he leads us to God the Father. Jesus, as deity, as the second person of the Trinity, is all powerful to perform such things. The spiritual realm is living and imbued with God's living presence. God is life and truth and goodness and beauty. Jesus will lead us into this utopian paradise where God's nature can be expressed free from contamination by wicked spirit beings.
(John 14:7) If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also: and from henceforth [from now on] ye know him, and have seen him.
(John 14:8) Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us.
(John 14:9) Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Shew us the Father?
(John 14:10) Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works.
Jesus spends a lot of time explaining the various roles of the persons of the Trinity. He seems to think this is important and so should we. I would say Jesus is obsessed with his relationship with God the Father and its distinctive characteristics; what the Father does and commands, how Jesus obeys and pleases him, etc.
(John 14:11) Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me: or else believe me for the very works' sake.
(John 14:12) Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I go unto my Father.
The apostles and subsequent generations of Christians would do more miracles than Jesus. Jesus empowers this by going to the Father and sending the Holy Spirit. But even before Jesus was crucified he gave the apostles the ability to perform miracles, but they weren't always so good at it.
The works of Jesus encompass more than his miracles; his entire life of sinless perfection is included. Christians can share in this conquering of sin through repentance and faith. A key component of Christianity is living out the virtues.
In a few verses Jesus begins talking about the Comforter who will come to them. He recognizes they will be saddened and troubled by Jesus' departing to be with the Father, but this will not last long once the Holy Spirit comes upon them to enliven their spirits and their faith life.
(John 14:13) And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son.
God will do whatever we ask in the name of Jesus. We should ask often for all the good things pleasing to God. Asking in Jesus' name means asking for things he desires for us. Often we ask for an excess of material goods or for our home team to win the game. And God is constrained by the predicament of this world: we all die, we all suffer in various ways, we all get psychologically damaged by others, our culture exploits and abuses us, crazy people harm us, and etc. We can minimize all this through sincere prayer honoring to Jesus and God. Ultimately, we will enjoy eternal paradise in the new heavens and new earth; we must endure until then.
(John 14:14) If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it.
(John 14:15) If ye love me, keep my commandments.
The commandments of Jesus includes the 10 commandments of the Old Testament. Some claim the only commandment of Jesus is that we love each other. This claim is absurd to the N-th degree; Jesus makes many demands on Christians. To find them, merely look through the gospels for every command of Jesus; there are hundreds.
Two other common incorrect claims I should mention...
I discuss these elsewhere.
(John 14:16) And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter [Advocate], that he may abide with you for ever;
We are not just comforted to relieve sorrow and distress; being satisfied and mentally at peace is a basic human need. It is, in fact, a need of all creatures. We will only finally achieve this in the new heavens and new earth.
(John 14:17) Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.
Some say this "Spirit of Truth" is not a person. This is based on not understanding that everything in the spiritual realm is living: truth is living; wisdom is living; each soul is living; ideas are living; symbols are living — everything. The spiritual realm is the realm of the living; the physical realm is non-living, inert.
In researching this verse I came across websites denying the Trinity and denying that Jesus is deity, and those articles all were based on scriptural interpretation. This illustrates why Sola Scriptura (Bible only) is wrong and why we need to embrace apostolic Christianity, the teachings of the apostles as witnessed in the New Testament, the early Church Councils, the practice and beliefs of the early Church, and the early church fathers.
(John 14:18) I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you.
In this verse Jesus appears to refer to himself as the Comforter after referring to another Comforter just two verses before. Such are the mysteries of the Trinity; each person of the Godhead (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) is independent while at the same time in total unity. Every work of God is done by all three; each have their role.
(John 14:19) Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no more; but ye see me: because I live, ye shall live also.
Jesus appears to be referring to his death and subsequent appearances after his resurrection. Therefore, it appears to refer only to those who would see him after his resurrection although, certainly, it applies to all of the redeemed.
(John 14:20) At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you.
Jesus appears to be referring to his resurrection. This statement would have no use to anybody if it referred to the time after a person's death. Perhaps it refers to the coming of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost since this event triggered latent knowledge and understanding about things Jesus had previously taught them.
(John 14:21) He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him.
You must keep the commandments of Jesus in order to be saved. This verse does not bode well for those claiming you are saved by faith only. Notice the train of events starts with obeying the many commandments of Jesus.
Jesus appears to us as a consequence of our works, in the context of our works, of our actions and activities. We see Christ in doing things. Thus, to have a relationship with Jesus requires devotional practices, prayer, Bible study, fellowship with others, acts of charity.
Ultimately, Jesus appears to each of us at our death.
(John 14:22) Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world?
(John 14:23) Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.
Someone who doesn't love Jesus is certainly not among the redeemed. Notice what is required in loving Jesus; you must keep his words. Keeping Jesus' words requires action — it is a work. Therefore, being saved requires works. This is one of the very many New Testament verses saying this; I can't imagine why people would try so hard to deny it.
(John 14:24) He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father's which sent me.
(John 14:25) These things have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you.
(John 14:26) But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost [Spirit], whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.
(John 14:27) Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.
(John 14:28) Ye have heard how I said unto you, I go away, and come again unto you. If ye loved me, ye would rejoice, because I said, I go unto the Father: for my Father is greater than I.
(John 14:29) And now I have told you before it come to pass, that, when it is come to pass, ye might believe.
(John 14:31) But that the world may know that I love the Father; and as the Father gave me commandment, even so I do. Arise, let us go hence.
(John 15:1) I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman [farmer].
Typically this is thought of as a figure of speech. In my view it is strictly literal. The explanation of this...
Everything living resides in the spiritual realm. All the various philosophical constructs, psychological structures, psychic energies, social forces, etc. reside in the spiritual realm and are living. All symbols reside in the spiritual realm and have a tangible existence. Humans have a spiritual body in addition to a physical body. There is a spiritual earth corresponding to the physical earth. The political powers of the world all have corresponding spiritual powers controlling them.
In Revelation 5:6 we read that Jesus is the Lamb of God — a literal lamb. And in Jesus' post-resurrection appearances he seemed to appear in various forms (because people couldn't recognize him). In like manner, Jesus is literally a vine; and this is more than merely a symbol. Jesus is not merely like his names, he is his names. And in the loving relationship between God the Father and Jesus, the Father literally is the husbandman.
(John 15:2) Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit.
God prunes even those who are faithful to him. Therefore, we should expect life to have difficulties and trials.
Notice that a requirement for salvation is good works: we must bear fruit.
(John 15:3) Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you.
We start out unclean but become clean through faith and obedience to the word of God.
The Old Testament concept of clean vs. unclean has to do with the spiritual condition of being in good standing with God by obeying his decrees. There is also a physical uncleanness, for example, lepers who are unclean.
(John 15:4) Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me.
We draw our spiritual strength and effectiveness from Jesus. In being part of the vine which is Christ, we have an organic unity with him, and him with us. In taking on human nature, Jesus "deified" human nature. God will eternally possess human nature as a part of his nature. We are not like God, but we are created in his image and he has adopted our human nature as part of his nature.
(John 15:5) I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing.
(John 15:6) If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.
Many claim that abiding in Christ refers to being saved. But as we see in other verses of this passage, it seems that not all Christians are abiding in Christ. Those who don't abide in Christ are burned in the fire — perhaps this refers to purgatory.
(John 15:7) If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.
This promise of Jesus answering our every request is conditional upon our abiding in Jesus. If abiding in Jesus referred to merely being saved, than we should expect our every prayer to be answered. It seems that abiding in Christ refers to a deeper level of commitment and unity; perhaps many Christians don't abide in Christ. The word-faith teachers seem to think that every Christian can get whatever they want through the power of faith, but this is clearly wrong. Some charismatics think if you abide in Christ that you will only ask for what it is already God's will for you so you will, of course, receive everything you ask for. This usually has the consequence of asking for everything conditionally by saying "if it is your will," but this seems wrong because Jesus seems to be offering real power to those who abide in him. I think the answer is that in the new heavens and new earth we really will receive whatever our heart desires, just as we really will be able to cast the mountain into the sea. But in this current world our soul is weakened by sin and by the influence of the other residents of the spiritual realm, which is our true home, with the result that our requests are often thwarted just as Daniel's prayers were thwarted by spiritual warfare in the spiritual realm.
(John 15:8) Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be my disciples.
(John 15:9) As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love.
(John 15:10) If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father's commandments, and abide in his love.
(John 15:11) These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full.
(John 15:12) This is my commandment, That ye love one another, as I have loved you.
(John 15:13) Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.
(John 15:14) Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you.
(John 15:15) Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth: but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of my Father I have made known unto you.
(John 15:16) Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and that your fruit should remain: that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you.
Jesus is speaking to his disciples, to those who are loyal to him and who obey him. He has chosen all of these. This does not mean that he has not chosen everyone. In fact, Jesus chooses everyone but some reject his calling. In choosing to die on the cross, Jesus choose everyone. But we each have our part to play in completing the salvation process. God does not choose that some will refuse to repent and turn to Christ but, sadly, that is the case. Jesus calls everyone, but not all respond.
Asking something in the name of Jesus implies that you ask for something that Jesus would approve of. It also implies that you ask for something that Jesus is capable of giving. The Father can only give something that doesn't contradict his nature.
Jesus cares about fruit that lasts forever. The only human thing that lasts forever is salvation. Certainly God wishes to bless us in many ways and he doesn't desire that we suffer, but he has placed us in this world of pain and suffering for his purposes. The apostle Paul wanted God to remove the thorn in the flesh but God wouldn't do it. We should not expect that God will grant everything we ask for. The only thing we can always expect God to do is to ensure that our fruit endures forever. Certainly it will survive into the new heavens and new earth and we will enjoy the benefits there for things we did here.
(John 15:17) These things I command you, that ye love one another.
(John 15:18) If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you.
(John 15:19) If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.
(John 15:20) Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also.
(John 15:21) But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me.
(John 15:22) If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloak for their sin.
(John 15:23) He that hateth me hateth my Father also.
(John 15:24) If I had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father.
(John 15:25) But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause.
(John 15:26) But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:
People have speculated that the Holy Spirit is a divine energy, not a living person. This is because of their wrong understanding founded on philosophy. The truth is that everything in the spiritual realm is living. In using philosophy to try to explain everything you inadvertently turn living things (such as the Holy Spirit) into non-living forces or principles.
The Holy Spirit appeared on the earth in a real, tangible manner, similar to the way in which Jesus appeared in a real, tangible manner (in Jesus' case it was as a human with a physical human body; in the Holy Spirit's case it was as the Church, the body of Christ).
The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father. Jesus sends the Holy Spirit. The original Nicene-Constantinopolitan creed states the first. Later, the Catholics added that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son (the filioque clause), but this is incorrect.
The Holy Spirit is the Comforter. Thus, the Church is the Comforter. However, there have been plenty of times in church history in which the Church did not comfort at all but, rather, burdened and exploited people. In my view, this was not the Church doing this but an imposter church pretending to be the Church.
The ministry of the Holy Spirit is to testify of Jesus. Whenever the Church fails to do this it is no longer the true, Holy Spirit-inspired Church.
(John 15:27) And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.
(John 16:1) These things have I spoken unto you, that ye should not be offended.
(John 16:2) They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service.
(John 16:3) And these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the Father, nor me.
(John 16:4) But these things have I told you, that when the time shall come, ye may remember that I told you of them. And these things I said not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you.
(John 16:5) But now I go my way to him that sent me; and none of you asketh me, Whither goest thou?
(John 16:6) But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart.
(John 16:7) Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you.
(John 16:8) And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:
(John 16:9) Of sin, because they believe not on me;
(John 16:10) Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye see me no more;
(John 16:11) Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.
(John 16:12) I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.
(John 16:13) Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come.
(John 16:14) He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.
(John 16:15) All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you.
(John 16:16) A little while, and ye shall not see me: and again, a little while, and ye shall see me, because I go to the Father.
(John 16:17) Then said some of his disciples among themselves, What is this that he saith unto us, A little while, and ye shall not see me: and again, a little while, and ye shall see me: and, Because I go to the Father?
Perhaps there were others present at the Last Supper besides the 12 disciples.
(John 16:18) They said therefore, What is this that he saith, A little while? we cannot tell what he saith.
(John 16:19) Now Jesus knew that they were desirous to ask him, and said unto them, Do ye inquire among yourselves of that I said, A little while, and ye shall not see me: and again, a little while, and ye shall see me?
(John 16:20) Verily, verily, I say unto you, That ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice: and ye shall be sorrowful, but your sorrow shall be turned into joy.
(John 16:21) A woman when she is in travail hath sorrow, because her hour is come: but as soon as she is delivered of the child, she remembereth no more the anguish, for joy that a man is born into the world.
Jesus is talking about the experience of the moment, of the relief after an ordeal, not of memories or anticipation. Certainly she can remember the pain, but it is not again experienced except as a memory (or nightmare).
(John 16:22) And ye now therefore have sorrow: but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no man taketh from you.
In like manner as a woman giving birth, the disciples are distressed learning of Jesus' impending death.
(John 16:23) And in that day ye shall ask me nothing. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, he will give it you.
(John 16:24) Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name: ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full.
(John 16:25) These things have I spoken unto you in proverbs [figuratively]: but the time cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in proverbs, but I shall shew you plainly of the Father.
The word for figuratively is a different word than used of parables, but Jesus seems to be referring to his parables. But we should note that no one, including the disciples, understood, even after explained. Therefore, Jesus demonstrated that figurative interpretation is a bad approach.
(John 16:26) At that day ye shall ask in my name: and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you:
We pray to the Father in the name of Jesus. Jesus does not intercede on our behalf but, rather, the Father hears our prayers.
(John 16:27) For the Father himself loveth you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came out from God.
(John 16:28) I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world: again, I leave the world, and go to the Father.
(John 16:29) His disciples said unto him, Lo, now speakest thou plainly, and speakest no proverb.
A funny verse: after Jesus tells them of a future day he will speak plainly, they declare he already is. But as subsequent events show, the disciples required the coming of the Holy Spirit to finally fully understand.
(John 16:30) Now are we sure that thou knowest all things, and needest not that any man should ask thee: by this we believe that thou camest forth from God.
(John 16:31) Jesus answered them, Do ye now believe?
(John 16:32) Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me.
(John 16:33) These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world.
(John 17:1) These words spake Jesus, and lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee:
(John 17:2) As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him.
(John 17:3) And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.
(John 17:4) I have glorified thee on the earth: I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do.
(John 17:5) And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.
(John 17:6) I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them me; and they have kept thy word.
(John 17:7) Now they have known that all things whatsoever thou hast given me are of thee.
(John 17:8) For I have given unto them the words which thou gavest me; and they have received them, and have known surely that I came out from thee, and they have believed that thou didst send me.
(John 17:9) I pray for them: I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me; for they are thine.
(John 17:10) And all mine are thine, and thine are mine; and I am glorified in them.
(John 17:11) And now I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me, that they may be one, as we are.
(John 17:12) While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled.
(John 17:13) And now come I to thee; and these things I speak in the world, that they might have my joy fulfilled in themselves.
(John 17:14) I have given them thy word; and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.
(John 17:15) I pray not that thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that thou shouldest keep them from the evil.
(John 17:16) They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.
(John 17:17) Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth.
(John 17:18) As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world.
(John 17:19) And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified through the truth.
(John 17:20) Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word;
(John 17:21) That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.
The unity within the Trinity is not institutional but a unity of essence and purpose.
Jesus prays the redeemed will have unity with the Trinity of a similar quality as the members of the Trinity do with each other. This forms the basis of the idea we will become deified in the new heavens and new earth.
(John 17:22) And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one:
(John 17:23) I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me.
(John 17:24) Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.
(John 17:25) O righteous Father, the world hath not known thee: but I have known thee, and these have known that thou hast sent me.
(John 17:26) And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them.
Luke and John have the correct sequence of events. All the long speeches including reference to Peter's denial of Jesus occur while yet in the upper room. In the Garden of Gethsemane the only events that occur are Jesus' prayers followed by his arrest; it is a somber affair.
(John 18:1) When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron [Kidron Valley], where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.
(John 18:2) And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples.
(John 18:3) Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.
(John 18:4) Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?
(John 18:5) They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them.
(John 18:6) As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.
(John 18:7) Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.
(John 18:8) Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way:
(John 18:9) That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.
(John 18:10) Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus.
(John 18:11) Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?
(John 18:12) Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him,
John mentions Annas who had previously been the high priest but was deposed from this position by the Romans. The Jews probably still considered Annas to be the high priest but had to formally admit Caiaphas was because the Romans appointed the high priest.
Perhaps Caiaphas wanted to see Jesus only after they had first collected together some evidence and false witnesses since he would be the one making the final judgment.
John often tells about things not mentioned by the other gospel writers and leaves out things they do talk about; in this case, Annas is talked about and Caiaphas is (mostly) left out.
(John 18:15) And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace [courtyard] of the high priest.
The other disciple is John. He was younger than the other disciples and therefore safe. He apparently knew the priests and had free access. Probably Jesus' mother Mary spent years in the temple as a consecrated virgin before getting too old and needing a man to look after her. Since most of the 12 disciples were related in some way, some probably spent time with the priests and rabbis in their youth, just as Jesus did.
(John 18:16) But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.
John brought Peter into the courtyard of the high priest. Those who mock Peter for only "following at a distance" ignore that he came as close as possible, risking his life in the process.
(John 18:17) Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this man's disciples? He saith, I am not.
(John 18:18) And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.
(John 18:19) The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.
(John 18:20) Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.
(John 18:21) Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said.
(John 18:22) And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so?
According to the Romans, Annas was no longer the high priest, but he still had all the authority and respect of the high priest. After all, the Romans deposing him was invalid; why should the Jews pay any attention to that? Somehow these two high priests worked out their proper relationship with each other.
The fist physical violence against Jesus (ignoring being roughed up and bound during and after his arrest).
(John 18:23) Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?
(John 18:24) Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.
(John 18:25) And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.
(John 18:26) One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?
(John 18:27) Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.
(John 18:28) Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.
Notice that the eating of the Passover lamb had not yet occurred and, presumably, they had not yet slaughtered it. Since they slaughtered the Passover lamb starting 3 P.M. on Nissan 14 this trial must have occurred the previous day, Nissan 13 (many hours are required for the events after this verse and Jesus being crucified starting 9 P.M. Nissan 14).
They took Jesus to Pilate first thing in the morning.
(John 18:29) Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man?
(John 18:30) They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.
(John 18:31) Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:
This reminds me of a poorly written story in which they use fake dialog to tell the reader the backstory. Pilate would not have said this unless he was hoping the Jews weren't asking for the death penalty.
(John 18:32) That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die.
(John 18:33) Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?
Pilate likely spoke Greek, not Aramaic, and, therefore, Jesus spoke to him in Greek.
(John 18:34) Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me?
(John 18:35) Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?
(John 18:36) Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.
This verse highlights an important facet of church history. Very early, the bishops and popes attempted to make the institutional church a visible manifestation of Christ's kingdom. I believe they did this to solve their problems with heresy and in a misguided effort to provide leadership to the largely uneducated masses of Christians. But the result has been nothing short of disaster. Some praise the virtues of Christendom. While I agree that God has always worked in human affairs and human history to bless us humans as best he can, having strong-armed bishops who think of themselves as infallible and above God's law has for the most part destroyed the spiritual life of the Church. They often thought that if they were providing weekly mass for people, that had done their job. Popes thought that having a legacy of great art was worth the price of exploiting the poor Christians who had to pay the cost.
At the time of Jesus, many Jews were hoping for a political kingdom which would expel the Romans. Some even thought that the Messiah would do this. There were various Jewish revolutionaries with various agendas fighting a low-key guerilla war but this intensified over time until it finally provoked the invasion of Israel and Jerusalem by the Romans, resulting in the destruction of the temple in 70 A.D. Jesus may have been referring to these when he spoke of false Messiahs. Anyway, Jesus in this verse is stating that his kingdom is not the one these Jews were expecting.
Jesus' kingdom is not from these political hopes and dreams of the Jewish people, rather, it is from God's will to create a spiritual nation, the Church. Certainly any group of people will have an institutional, sociological, and political aspect, and the question is whether a strong hierarchical Church having division between laity and clergy is what Jesus intended, or whether the Church was to be abstract, gauzy, and ephemeral; the mere body of Christ and nothing more. Based on the way the very early church structured itself under the guidance of the apostles, it is hard to justify the direction the Church soon took under the bishops as anything other than man's corruption of the Church. Of course, these same bishops who were making all these changes were also defining true doctrine and defending against heretics (who were often also bishops).
(John 18:37) Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.
(John 18:38) Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all.
(John 18:39) But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
(John 18:40) Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.
(John 19:1) Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him.
(John 19:2) And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,
(John 19:3) And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands.
(John 19:4) Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.
(John 19:5) Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man!
(John 19:6) When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him.
(John 19:7) The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.
(John 19:8) When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid;
(John 19:9) And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.
(John 19:10) Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?
(John 19:11) Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.
(John 19:12) And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.
(John 19:13) When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha.
Pilate delivers his verdict the next morning.
(John 19:14) And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!
John might be using Roman time.
(John 19:15) But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.
(John 19:16) Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.
(John 19:17) And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:
(John 19:18) Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.
(John 19:19) And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.
(John 19:20) This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh [near] to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.
(John 19:21) Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.
(John 19:22) Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.
(John 19:23) Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat [undergarment]: now the coat [undergarment] was without seam, woven from the top throughout.
Presumably this undergarment was dirty and sweaty, having dried blood. Perhaps Jesus was whipped repeatedly while carrying the cross, ripping his clothing in numerous places, but the Bible doesn't say this. Maybe the soldier who won this cloth planned to cut it up and use the good pieces.
Various churches claim to have this garment, or pieces of it, on display. Obviously, some (or all) of these claims are false. People like to call this stuff "traditions", but I prefer to call it what it us — superstitious lies.
(John 19:24) They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.
(John 19:25) Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas [Cleophas], and Mary Magdalene.
Three Marys and Mary's sister witnessed the crucifixion. I wonder what people called these Marys to distinguish them, probably not Mary, probably added nicknames.
(John 19:26) When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!
(John 19:27) Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.
There is a tradition that Mary lived in a small room attached to the same building as the upper room. Perhaps Jesus and Mary both stayed there often. After Joseph died, Jesus probably worked and financially supported Mary. She may have also worked or perhaps she lived like a nun in close proximity to the temple as she likely had done before becoming too old and being married-off to Joseph.
(John 19:28) After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.
(John 19:29) Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar [sour wine]: and they filled a spunge [sponge] with vinegar [sour wine], and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.
Perhaps the hyssop was merely a handy bush having a long sturdy stem useful for reaching up to his mouth, or perhaps the fluffy clump of tiny flowers of the hyssop plant was the sponge itself since these would hold the wine.
(John 19:30) When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar [sour wine], he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.
Jesus was probably 37 years old when he died.
(John 19:31) The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
(John 19:32) Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him.
(John 19:33) But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs:
(John 19:35) And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.
(John 19:36) For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.
(John 19:37) And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.
(John 19:38) And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.
(John 19:39) And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight.
(John 19:40) Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.
(John 19:41) Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre [tomb], wherein was never man yet laid.
(John 19:42) There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre [tomb] was nigh [near] at hand.
(John 20:1) The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre [tomb], and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre [tomb].
(John 20:2) Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the LORD out of the sepulchre [tomb], and we know not where they have laid him.
(John 20:3) Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre [tomb].
(John 20:4) So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre [tomb].
(John 20:5) And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in.
(John 20:6) Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre [tomb], and seeth the linen clothes lie,
(John 20:7) And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself.
(John 20:8) Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre [tomb], and he saw, and believed.
(John 20:9) For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead.
(John 20:10) Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.
(John 20:11) But Mary stood without at the sepulchre [tomb] weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre [tomb],
(John 20:12) And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.
(John 20:13) And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my LORD, and I know not where they have laid him.
(John 20:14) And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.
(John 20:15) Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne [carried] him hence [from here], tell me where thou hast laid [put] him, and I will take him away.
(John 20:16) Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master.
(John 20:17) Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.
We should wonder how John came to know of this dialog. Mary would have told the story and he would have thought, "Jesus said not to touch him; how weird". And he would have remembered it.
(John 20:18) Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the LORD, and that he had spoken these things unto her.
(John 20:19) Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
After having scattered for a while, they collected together as a group again.
(John 20:20) And when he had so said, he shewed unto them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad, when they saw the LORD.
(John 20:21) Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you.
(John 20:22) And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost [Spirit]:
(John 20:23) Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained.
(John 20:24) But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.
(John 20:25) The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the LORD. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.
(John 20:26) And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you.
(John 20:27) Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.
(John 20:28) And Thomas answered and said unto him, My LORD and my God.
(John 20:29) Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.
(John 20:30) And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book:
(John 20:31) But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name.
(John 21:1) After these things Jesus shewed [showed] himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias; and on this wise [in this way] shewed he himself.
Apparently, they've gone back home to Galilee; what else can they do? There's no reason to hang around Jerusalem.
(John 21:2) There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas called Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two other of his disciples.
7 people, presumably all men, all fishermen.
(John 21:3) Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. They say unto him, We also go with thee. They went forth, and entered into a ship immediately; and that night they caught nothing.
Peter suggests they go fishing. This implies they have access to a boat, more evidence they've gone back home. Did all 7 of them get into the same boat or were there several boats? Later in the story it seems only one boat.
Notice the use of the word "immediately". It doesn't mean miraculously nor does it mean very fast. It merely means that's the next thing they did of significance in the story narrative.
(John 21:4) But when the morning was now come, Jesus stood on the shore: but the disciples knew not that it was Jesus.
They don't recognize Jesus. Not surprising they didn't recognize him since they were 300 or more feet out in the lake; perhaps there was mist.
(John 21:5) Then Jesus saith unto them, Children, have ye any meat [fish]? They answered him, No.
They were close enough to shore to communicate, probably by shouting. This implies there were no waves or wind. Two things odd about this: (1) Jesus calls them children and they don't object (perhaps it meant something like "young men" or "friends"), and (2) a supposed stranger asks them if they have any food, presumably to give to him; a form of begging I suppose. Again, they don't object.
(John 21:6) And he said unto them, Cast the net on the right side of the ship, and ye shall find. They cast therefore, and now they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes.
If you've spent all night fishing and not caught anything I suppose you would try anything. They couldn't haul the net into the boat so they left it in the water and dragged it to shore.
(John 21:7) Therefore that disciple whom Jesus loved saith unto Peter, It is the Lord. Now when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he girt [wrapped] his fisher's coat unto him, (for he was naked,) and did cast himself into the sea [water].
John was the first to recognize it was Jesus from the seemingly miraculous catch of fish. Once Peter learned it was Jesus he impulsively jumped in the water to swim to shore. Perhaps this served another purpose, to lighten the load on the boat; perhaps there were not 7 paddles anyway. Perhaps John told Peter privately so the other 5 didn't know why Peter jumped in the water. There is no mention of Peter abandoning the others so they would have to do all the work of bringing in the fish to shore.
Peter wasn't stark naked but merely stripped-down to undergarments, probably bare-chested and bare-legged. This implies it was not very cold. Yet in Jerusalem it was so cold they had to warm themselves by the fire. This implies Jesus on the cross also had to endure extreme cold without adequate clothing which is never fun. Maybe Galilee is warmer since it is a lower elevation, 700 feet below sea level. Jerusalem is about 2,500 feet elevation.
(John 21:8) And the other disciples came in a little ship; (for they were not far from land, but as it were two hundred cubits,) dragging the net with fishes.
They were about 300 feet from shore. It appears there was only one boat having all 7 of them.
(John 21:9) As soon then as they were come to land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid thereon, and bread.
Perhaps this fire had been there the whole time but they only just saw it when they came into shore. It probably took them 15 minutes to row to shore. I wonder if the coals referred to is from charcoal? It's a compact heat source and burns very hot.
Did Jesus carry food with him after his resurrection? (I doubt it.) If so, where did he get it? Did he buy it? (Where did he get the money?) Did he catch it? (Where did he get the fishing equipment?) Likely he materialized it all (including the fire) as with the miraculous feedings.
(John 21:10) Jesus saith unto them, Bring of the fish which ye have now caught.
(John 21:11) Simon Peter went up, and drew the net to land full of great fishes, an hundred and fifty and three: and for all there were so many, yet was not the net broken.
Apparently, when the 6 came into shore they left the net in the water. Probably the others helped Peter pull the net from the water to the beach. Apparently it was common practice for fishermen to count their catch and they notice this catch having many more fish then usual. Probably the number 153 of fish would mean something to the other fisherman of the day who knew how many were in a usual catch; and 153 was far greater. I doubt there is any other meaning to the number 153 than this but some make much of details such as this.
(John 21:12) Jesus saith unto them, Come and dine. And none of the disciples durst [dared] ask him, Who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord.
Why would they need to ask who he was since they knew? Each of the 7 had an "aha" moment in which they recognized it was Jesus. I think the significance of this is that each discerned it was Jesus without anyone having to ask. This implies that he looked different so there was always a lingering uncertainty about who he was. In looking at photos of well-known celebrities as they age it is sometimes hard to detect whether they are the same person. Just as with the disciples on the road to Emmaus the resurrected Jesus looked different. Perhaps there was some sort of cultural taboo about asking someone you should know who they were.
(John 21:13) Jesus then cometh, and taketh bread, and giveth them, and fish likewise.
It appears that they gutted and cooked some of the fish just caught.
(John 21:14) This is now the third time that Jesus shewed [showed] himself to his disciples, after that he was risen from the dead.
Notice the resurrected body is physical, not merely a phantasm.
(John 21:15) So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest [agapao] thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love [phileo] thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs.
Jesus uses the word agapao for love while Peter uses the word phileo. People often claim the meanings of these two words are quite different, that agapao refers to sacrificial love while philio refers to brotherly love. Thus, Peter's love of Jesus was defective. But the use of the term in the book of Jude demonstrates this distinction in the terms to be incorrect as does verse 17 below.
Peter mentions that Jesus knows Peter loves him.
(John 21:16) He saith to him again the second time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest [agapao] thou me? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love [phileo] thee. He saith unto him, Feed my sheep.
Jesus changes from referring to Christians as lambs and now refers to them as sheep.
(John 21:17) He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest [phileo] thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest [phileo] thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love [phileo] thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep.
Jesus provides the opportunity for Peter to undo his three-time denial of Jesus by allowing him to confess his love for him three times. Notice that all three times Jesus commands Peter to "feed my sheep". This provides a good way to assure Peter that his denial is truly forgiven since Jesus associates Peter's love for him with his ministering to the people of God.
Notice that Jesus says for the third time, "do you love me?" yet the other word for love is used. If these two words for love were different as often claimed, this sentence should not refer to Jesus asking the question for the third time but, rather, to asking a new and different question altogether. Jesus here accepts Peter's answer using the word phileo; apparently that word is satisfactory after all. Perhaps the difference in the usage of the two words is due to regional dialects.
This time Peter mentions that Jesus knows all things. Notice that this three-time question by Jesus distresses him.
(John 21:18) Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast young, thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest: but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry thee whither thou wouldest not.
Peter would die when he was old with arms outstretched, by crucifixion. As a Jew, he was crucified; Romans were beheaded. Peter appears to have already been nearly middle-aged when he first followed Jesus. The others treat him with respect due to an elder. He was martyred about 35 years later in 66 A.D. by Nero.
(John 21:19) This spake he, signifying by what death he should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow me.
Peter's death glorifies God. Anytime a martyr gives their life defending the gospel and their devotion to Jesus, God is glorified. I suppose God is also glorified anytime we live in a way pleasing to God, with every small act of devotion and obedience and love.
Even though it would result in martyrdom, Peter is to follow Jesus.
(John 21:20) Then Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved following; which also leaned on his breast at supper, and said, Lord, which is he that betrayeth thee?
(John 21:21) Peter seeing him saith to Jesus, Lord, and what shall this man do?
Peter, after learning he would be martyred, asks about John's fate. It's hard not to chuckle.
(John 21:22) Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? follow thou me.
(John 21:23) Then went this saying abroad among the brethren, that that disciple should not die: yet Jesus said not unto him, He shall not die; but, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?
Preterists use this verse as evidence that Jesus' second coming (parousia) occurred in 70 A.D. with the destruction of the temple by the Romans. But there is another explanation: Jesus revealed his second coming to John in vision which he wrote down in the book of Revelation. John died only after writing down this vision. Because time in the spiritual realm has magical properties from our perspective in the physical world, Jesus' second coming actually occurred for John to witness before he died. Of course, for us others still living in the physical realm, the second coming is a yet-future event.
(John 21:24) This is the disciple which testifieth of these things, and wrote these things: and we know that his testimony is true.
John identifies himself as the author of this gospel. But there are some others involved in the writing of this gospel; they identify themselves with the word "we". These are probably scribes or fellow disciples who helped John with the book. Perhaps they wrote it down while he spoke, or perhaps he wrote up a bunch of notes and they organized it into its current form with his input and assistance. Both John and they testify that all these things are true, that these things are infallible.
(John 21:25) And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. Amen.
We should wonder whether there is any important essential information in these volumes of books which were never written. Some like to find all kinds of doctrines within this unwritten knowledge base. This is why I emphasize that Christianity is apostolic; it consists of the teachings of the apostles, not of the hidden teachings of Jesus. The Catholic Church makes the same error in claiming the apostles passed-down teaching which they never actually taught.
King James Version