Fulfilled — past, present, future

End Times Prophecy must address the Old Testament promises to Israel. Options...

Fulfilled before Christ


Fulfilled in Christ (= the seed)

Fulfilled by the Church (= true Israel = remnant)

The promises to Israel...

To Jewish people 

Promised Land 

Davidic Throne 

New Temple 

New Covenant of Jeremiah 31 is the Church

Isaiah chapters 11 and 35

Promises to Israel

Fulfilled before Christ

You are the LORD God, who chose Abram and brought him out of Ur of the Chaldeans and named him Abraham. You found his heart faithful to you, and you made a covenant with him to give to his descendants the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Jebusites and Girgashites. You have kept your promise because you are righteous. (Nehemiah 9:7-8)

Notice that God fulfilled the promises made to Abraham by the time of Nehemiah.

So the LORD gave Israel all the land he had sworn to give their forefathers, and they took possession of it and settled there. The LORD gave them rest on every side, just as he had sworn to their forefathers. Not one of their enemies withstood them; the LORD handed all their enemies over to them. Not one of all the Lord's good promises to the house of Israel failed; every one was fulfilled. (Joshua 21:43-45)

God fulfilled his promises to Israel when they occupied the land at the time of Joshua.


But remember the LORD your God, for it is he who gives you the ability to produce wealth, and so confirms his covenant, which he swore to your forefathers, as it is today. If you ever forget the LORD your God and follow other gods and worship and bow down to them, I testify against you today that you will surely be destroyed. Like the nations the LORD destroyed before you, so you will be destroyed for not obeying the LORD your God. (Deuteronomy 8:18-20)

The promises made to the nation of Israel were conditional upon their obedience.

Fulfilled in Christ

These are a shadow of the things that were to come; the reality, however, is found in Christ. (Colossians 2:17)

Christ is the reality of the law.

The point of what we are saying is this: We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, and who serves in the sanctuary, the true tabernacle set up by the Lord, not by man. Every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices, and so it was necessary for this one also to have something to offer. If he were on earth, he would not be a priest, for there are already men who offer the gifts prescribed by the law. They serve at a sanctuary that is a copy and shadow of what is in heaven. This is why Moses was warned when he was about to build the tabernacle: "See to it that you make everything according to the pattern shown you on the mountain". (Hebrews 8:1-5)

Christ is the fulfillment of the law. What the law demonstrated, Christ is.

The law is only a shadow of the good things that are coming — not the realities themselves. For this reason it can never, by the same sacrifices repeated endlessly year after year, make perfect those who draw near to worship. (Hebrews 10:1)

Christ is the fulfillment of the law.

He said to them, "This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms". Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. (Luke 24:44-45)

The purpose for the Old Testament was to show us Christ. But he is the reality.

The promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. The Scripture does not say "and to seeds," meaning many people, but "and to your seed," meaning one person, who is Christ. (Galatians 3:16)

The verses in Genesis contain the promises of land and the nation to Abraham's offspring (plural). These promises provide the basis for the nation of Israel.

The word "seed" in Genesis is singular. Paul explicitly interprets this to refer to Christ, but in Genesis it referred to Abraham's descendants which were collectively plural even though the word "seed" is singular. Therefore, Paul was applying the formula Christ = Israel.

Understand, then, that those who believe are children of Abraham. (Galatians 3:7)

Since the Church is the true "seed" of Abraham (through faith) then the Church is the "true" Israel.

Therefore, we have the formula the Church = Israel clearly specified in the New Testament.

The fact that God raised him from the dead, never to decay, is stated in these words: "I will give you the holy and sure blessings promised to David". (Acts 13:34)

The fulfillment of the promises are in Christ.

Fulfilled in the Church

The formula "the Church = true Israel" and "the Church = the remnant".

These things happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the fulfillment of the ages has come. (1 Corinthians 10:11)

The Church is the fulfillment of the ages.

"The time is coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah". (Jeremiah 31:31)

This new covenant is the Church. But this passage says it is with Israel and Judah. Therefore "the Church = Israel".

Yet the Israelites will be like the sand on the seashore, which cannot be measured or counted. In the place where it was said to them, "You are not my people," they will be called "sons of the living God". (Hosea 1:10)

This passage says that "the Church = Israel" and that the promises to Israel are fulfilled in the Church.

What if God, choosing to show his wrath and make his power known, bore with great patience the objects of his wrath — prepared for destruction? What if he did this to make the riches of his glory known to the objects of his mercy, whom he prepared in advance for glory — even us, whom he also called, not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles? As he says in Hosea: "I will call them 'my people' who are not my people; and I will call her 'my loved one' who is not my loved one," and, "It will happen that in the very place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' they will be called 'sons of the living God.'" (Romans 9:22-26)

This demonstrates that the previous passage in Hosea (1:10) is applied to the Church.

But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people belonging to God, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light. Once you were not a people, but now you are the people of God; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy. (1 Peter 2:9-10)

The Church is the priesthood which was the priesthood of Israel.

There was no earthly Israel from 70 A.D. to 1948 A.D. How can we claim God is honoring Israel as his chosen people when they didn't exist for nearly 1,900 years? It would seem that the dispersal of Israel in 70 A.D. is strong evidence God is finished with Israel as his chosen nation and has applied the promises made to Israel to the Church.

Premillennialists are looking for an earthly, physical, carnal kingdom. But this is the same error of the Jews of Jesus day and Jesus rebuked them for it. The true kingdom is spiritual with the final fulfillment in the new heavens and new earth.

New Covenant of Jeremiah 31 is the Church

"The time is coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah". (Jeremiah 31:31)

This new covenant is the Church. But this passage says it is with Israel and Judah. Therefore "the Church = Israel".